PTV Visum FAQs

Basic FAQ

  Visum files


The version file can not be read in. Open version failed with:
'File ...: No valid PTV binary format ID.'

Unfortunately this version file is defective, it consists only of a binary fragment without header.
The first 12 characters must consist of the string 'PTVSYSTEM ' otherwise an error message is returned.
Has it been saved to an erroneous data carrier, like an USB stick or a CD/DVD?



Opening a Version file fails with an error message:
'Cannot read version file, as it was saved with newer Visum version.'
How can I read data from Visum version files into older versions of Visum, i.e. from Visum18 downgrading to Visum17?

Version files use a binary format, are only upward compatible readable, but not downward.
Workaround: Following components of a Visum model can be saved to text based files, and opened into a an older release version, but note any displayed warnings:
- Network data as NET file.
- Matrices plus demand model as DMD file.
- Procedure parameters as XML file.
- Assignments cannot be ported directly, but you can copy volumes, travel times and queue lengths into userdefined attributes and port them as ATT file.

Please note that results may vary when exchanging the used release version. To monitor these, compare the values of main result attributes with userdefined attributes afterwards.



How can I exchange lineroutes between version files, based upon the stop order?

To transfer lineroutes or complete timetables from one version to another, proceed as follows:
1) Save the data:
File -> Save as... -> Network. The written *.net file meets the ASCII format.
Use the button ''Frequent cases'' and activate ''Save timetable'' to select all tables needed.
Use the option ''Save only active network objects'' to meet an active filter.
2) In the other version file:
Open the *.net file:
File -> Open -> Network.
3) In the dialog ''Read network'' activate ''Read network file additionally'' and ''Show the 'Completing line routes' window''.
4) In the dialog ''Read network data additionally'' click ''Frequent cases'' and activate ''Read timetable''.
5) In the dialog ''Read network (completing the courses of line routes/system routes)'' use at least the option ''Search for shortest path''.



Opening a Version file leads to a warning:
'Neither 'Save' functionality nor procedure execution nor COM available, since max. license size is exceeded'
Can you open version files that exceed the license size?

Yes, all license sizes (except of the smalllest) allow to read a Version file containing more network objects than the license allows, but with the functionality limitations the warning describes. Additionally the Graphics tools (e.g. Flow bundle), calculation and changes in the Scenario management are turned off.
Adding of network objects or additively reading of a network file is still possible. You can edit the network manually to underrun the licensed network size again.



Are version files *.VER saved with Visum 64 bit compatible with Visum 32 bit? Can Visum 32 bit read and modify such files? Do they deliver the same calculation results?

Version files do not differ when saved with Visum 32 bit or Visum 64 bit. However,
- working with Visum 64 bit you can generate version files of considerably larger size which might become too large to be readable using Visum 32 bit.
- calculation results may deviate slightly.



How can I find out which release version was used to save a Version file?

Use a text editor to open the Version file. It will show its binary content, but its first line holds ASCII characters showing the release and servicepack number, and reads for example like:
PTVSYSTEM VISUM Version Vers. 18.01-2 Rev.134410

Tip: Use a powerful text editor like TextPad or use TotalCommander, offering with Lister a small size text viewer (use the F3 key), capable of showing content already before loading the complete file.




What are the requirements on hardware and operating system?



Where can I find the PRJ files that describe the coordinate systems?

After running the setup for PTV Visum the PRJ files are stored to the following folder:
c:\Program Files\PTV Vision\PTV Visum 2020\Exe\Projections\
Each user has an own copy from which PRJ files can be added or removed:
c:\Users\%USERNAME%\AppData\Roaming\PTV Vision\PTV Visum 2020\Projections\

- Vista: C:\Documents and settings\%USERNAME%\Anwendungsdaten\Visum\125\Projections\
- Windows7: C:\Users\%USERNAME%\AppData\Roaming\Visum\120\Projections\;10.00



The setup freezes during the step 'Register Previewer...'

- Use the current setup:
- Make sure the dongle with the matching license is accessible.
- Update the dongle firmware:
- Workaround: Abort the setup (which was almost finished). If the software starts, try to register the COM server and the Previewer manually:
Help -> Register as COM server



Is it possible to install PTV Visum during a Silent-Installation?

Regarding the Silent installation please refer to:
c:\Program Files\PTV Vision\PTV Visum 18\Doc\Eng\Installation_Visum18.pdf
Ch. 5.

Unfortunately, Python can not be installed in the background because the setups for Python are not 'silent' and are not created by PTV.
Although you can use a manual setup to create a Setup.inf file to prepare for a silent installation, if Python components are mentioned in the Setup.inf file, they will be ignored.
If you want to install PTV Visum via a package, you always have to install Python manually.

If you want to install Service packs for PTV Visum later it is possible to package them, even if they exchange any Python components of the Python installation or inside the Visum installation folder.



What is the difference between a release version and a service pack, and where can I download them?

- Release versions are independent program versions which can be updated with service packs.
Service packs include new features and bugfixes. They can only be used to update the corresponding release version, which means that e.g. service pack 18.00-06 requires a base installation of PTV Visum 18. The updates are cumulative, meaning that the latest service pack includes all earlier ones.

Installation setups for release versions are located at:

Releases until PTV Visum 14 are located at:

Service packs are available at:



After installing and starting Visum, a warning is displayed:
'HBEFA data warning': 'No or incomplete installation of HBEFA data. Please install the HBEFA data package provided by PTV.'

The voluminous HBEFA data are provided over a separated setup, available at:



Can PTV Visum/PTV Vissim be run on a virtual server or on cloud computing services using a virtual license server with a software dongle?

PTV Visum/PTV Vissim can be run on a virtual server or on cloud computing services, but need access to a dongle, which needs to be plugged in somewhere in the network: A computer or a network USB host, for example:

This works only with a network license. It is not possible to plug in a dongle with a single seat license on a virtual machine.
Virtual license servers and software dongles are not yet available.

Note that PTV Visum/PTV Vissim is a Windows desktop application which always uses a window handle and needs to run in a user session.
Take care of the graphics card when using PTV Vissim for 3D animations:



Is PTV Visum available as 32 bit version?
Does PTV Visum support 64 bit operation systems?

Visum 32 bit is only available up to the release PTV Visum 16, from PTV Visum 17 on a 32 bit version is not available anymore.
Visum 64 bit cannot be run on a 32 bit operating system.

Since PTV Visum 10, PTV Visum supports 64 bit and can be run on Windows Vista/7/8/10 64 bit. By using a 64 bit operation system, you are able to allocate considerably more main memory (RAM) than by using a 32 bit machine, from which particulary working with big and memory-intensive networks benefit. As long a process fits into the main memory, the computing speed is not influenced by the memory demand.

Visum 32 bit can be operated on a 64 bit platform too, but only in 32 bit mode.



Where do I get information about the changes that are included in service packs?

Service packs and release notes are available at:

For each service pack, the release notes can be previewed (click 'view').

This document contains descriptions for:
- Significant changes
- New features
- Bugfixes

During the installation of a service pack, the file
is copied into the folder
..\Program Files\PTV Vision\PTV Visum xx\Doc\Eng\; 9.00



How to set up the 3 GB option like in Windows XP for 32 bit VISTA or Windows 7, to extend the virtual address space from 2 GB to 3 GB for a 32 bit process?

If one of the following error messages show up, setting up the 3 GB option might be very helpful or even necessary:
- 'A memory allocation failed. The virtual address space of the process has been used completely or does not include a coherent free block of sufficient size'.
- 'Insufficient memory.'/'Out of memory'.
- 'Error: Cannot load background file'.
- 'Error in memory management. No free heap handle'.
- 'Building connection legs...'.

To extend the address allocation space used by a 32 bit process, you can use the command BCDEDIT:
1) Look in the start menu for a shortcut to the command prompt.
2) Right click it and open it 'as administrator'.
3) Use this option:
BCDEDIT /Set IncreaseUserVa 2700
Alternatively use this option:
4) Reboot the computer.

Please note: The use of these options on any 64 bit system is not recommended. PTV AG is not liable for any dammage caused by using these options.




Is PTV Visum available as demo version?

Yes, a demo version can be obtained from:



On a 64 bit operation system Visum 32 bit shows one of the following error messages and then crashes:
- 'A memory allocation failed. The virtual address space of the process has been used completely or does not include a coherent free block of sufficient size'.
- 'Out of memory'.
- 'Runtime Error!
Program: c:\Program Files (x86)\PTV_Vision\VISUM110\Exe\Visum110.exe'

Even on Windows 64 bit, Visum 32 bit is able to address only a maximum of 3.8 Gb memory.

Thus, the solution may be to use Visum 64 bit to be able to address more memory. Please apply to to get a setup and a license file. Also consult the download area on (only for Visum14 and older)
to check whether these files are already available.



Where are new features of a release version described?

The document 'Overview_VisumXX.pdf' describes all main improvements and changes:
...\PTV Vision\PTV Visum XX\Doc\Eng\Overview_VisumXX.pdf



The coordinate systems cannot be selected because the dialog 'Projections' displays neither folders nor projection files (*.PRJ).

Sometimes it happens that no projection files are copied to the folder:
c:\Users\%USERNAME%\AppData\Roaming\PTV Vision\PTV Visum 18\Projections\

You can easily correct this by copying the contents of the folder
c:\Program Files\PTV Vision\PTV Visum 18\Exe\Projections\
c:\Users\%USERNAME%\AppData\Roaming\PTV Vision\PTV Visum 18\Projections\

While running the setup, the projection files are copied to the EXE folder, to which normal user accounts do not have any access.
Starting Visum, it is checked whether the current user already has a projections folder. Each user gets his own folder, thus can delete non-used projections or add additional projections.

If the list of projections is empty, the folder 'Projections' does exist, but is empty. You can delete this folder and start Visum again. This triggers an attempt to copy the projection files. If the folder remains empty, you can copy the files manually.



Starting Visum14 in Windows XP leads to the error message:
'Visum140.exe is not a correct application for a Win32 system'

Visum14 is not supported on Microsoft Windows XP (and neither on Windows Server 2003).



During the installation an error message appears:
'This is not a valid PTV Visum folder!'

Instead of a setup, an update was executed, without installing Visum first. You have to install Visum by executing a setup before updating it in a second step.



PTV Visum does not start, because the CodeMeter dongle is not correctly recognized.
This happens on a laptop, shortly after reactivating it after an energy saving mode ('hibernation').
Typical error messages can be:
- 'Error@AllocateHandle: CmStick Entry not found, Error 200'.
- 'CmDongle runtime system is not installed'.
- Windows Systemtray: 'USB device not recognized'.
- CodeMeter control center: 'No information on any CodeMeter licenses available. No CmContainer found.'

- Reboot the computer. If the dongle works again, energy saving settings (includes switching off USB ports) should be checked.
- After the reboot, check for a defective USB port: Try the dongle on another USB port.
- After checking the USB ports: Try the dongle on another machine. When plugging this dongle out and in, its LED will blink in red and green. The last blink should be green, if not this dongle could be defective (see ).

Additional Workarounds:
- In case the dongle is plugged into a USB HUB, plug it into an USB port of the used laptop.
- Use an USB HUB with an own power supply.
- In case 'USB Watchdog' or similar monitoring software is active, deactivate/uninstall this.
- In case USB3.0 is used, update the internal USB chip set drivers (often available as patches from the laptop's manufactorer).



Where do I get information about new servicepacks?

Information about new servicepacks can be found on the Start page in Visum.

Servicepacks can be downloaded from:

You will find information about your password in the file 'DownloadServicePacks.txt' that is located in the folder Documents or Docs respectively of your Visum installation.



The import or export of a MS-Acces database fails with the following error message:
- 'Could not start VisumDbServer.exe'
- 'VisumDbServer not registered correctly'

The component VisumDBServer.exe/VisumMdbServer.exe was not registered correctly. Try the following methods to register it again:
1) Help -> Register as COM Server
2) Run any current service pack suitable to your installation.
3) Register VisumXXX.exe again:
Start -> Execute -> 'C:\Program Files\PTV_Vision\VISUM170\Exe\Visum170.exe' -reg
4) As a test, disable the antivirus software, and if positive add an exception.



Starting PTV Visum/PTV Vissim fails with an error message:
'The buffer file for license data has an old format'

1) Open a windows explorer window.
2) Rename this file (for example for Visum 18) to 'AppData licenses.txt':
%AppData%\PTV Vision\PTV Visum 18\
3) Rename this file to 'ProgramData licenses.txt', if present (for example for Visum 18, this file is only created if the license has been selected by an administrator):
C:\ProgramData\PTV Vision\PTV Visum 18\
4) Start PTV Visum/PTV Vissim and select the license once.
5) Add both files to a zip archive and open a support request:


  Demand procedure


Running TFlowFuzzy leads to an error message:
'Invalid counted values are available. Do you want to set this data to the active state?' In the log file there is written for several times:
'Invalid count value tolerance 0.000000 with count object zone...'.

The error message is caused by zero or empty values in the attribute tolerances. TFlowFuzzy requires tolerances > 0.
- Make sure that all counts have a tolerance > 0
- Use the option 'Use only network objects with volume > 0 and counted value > 0'.


  Network editor & filter


How can I merge neighboring Zones or Territories?

1) Export the Zones or Territories as network file. Use 'frequent cases' to select all necessary tabels.
2) Open this network file with an editor and delete one of the Zones or Territories. In the table 'Surface items' the respective Faces have to refer to the same Surface. Opening this network file, Visum will merge the Zones or Territories. The points and edges of the common border will be removed by the 'normalizing' process.

Two adjacent Zones or Territories (with a common boundary) are defined in the network file as follows:

* Table: Surface items

* Table: Zones

If you simply delete the second zone and specify in the table Surface items that both Faces belong to the same Surface item, PTV Visum will merge both zones after opening the network file.

* Table: Surface items

* Table: Zones



Where can I find manuals, documentation, examples or tutorials?

The manual is available as online help in the menu
Help -> PTV Visum Help -> leads to
Additionally with the same contents as PDF in:
Help -> PTV Visum manual
c:\Program Files\PTV Vision\PTV Visum 20\Doc\Eng\PTVVisum20_Manual.pdf
This path contains also additional documentation.

Example files are availalbe in:
Help -> Examples
c:\Users\Public\Documents\PTV Vision\PTV Visum 2020\Examples\ -> search for 'COM'.

Tutorials are available in:
Help -> Examples
c:\Users\Public\Documents\PTV Vision\PTV Visum 2020\Quickstart Tutorial\
c:\Users\Public\Documents\PTV Vision\PTV Visum 2020\Tutorials\

Additionally you can watch recorded webinars here:

Training opportunities can be found in:



When importing main zones as shapefile, how can I allocate zones to these main zones?

- Create a POI category.
- Import the shapefile into this POI category.
- If more POIs exist, create a filter on this POI category.
- POIs -> (right-click to open the context menu) -> Convert active POIs ->
Dialog 'Convert Points of interest'
Convert Points of interest to: Main zones
Zones in polygon of main zone: Assign all zones
Delete Points of interest after completing the action: True



How to refresh the connector time for all connectors?

The connector time is calculated once for new created connectors over length and speed. These can be individually edited in the list 'Connectors' or by calling the respective dialog 'Connectors ... edit'. To set these for all connectors again, you can go on as follows:
1) Refresh connector lengths:
Network -> Network settings -> Scale -> Option 'Recalculate the lengths of links and connectors' -> Key 'recalculate'.
2) Refresh connector times by using the following formula:
t0-TSys = (length * 1000(m) * 3600(s))/(4v0 kmh) * 100(m)) = length * 900 .
Then, implement these by:
Connectors -> (right mouse key) Context menu 'Connectors' -> Multi-edit -> Attribute: t0-TSys PuTWalk -> Key 'Attribute' -> Length * 900 .



How can I propagate run and dwell times between links and PuT lines?

- To propagate speeds from Traffic systems onto links, use the link type attributes 'vDefault-PuTSys (..)'. To implement these, you might either set the attribute 'Strict' to True, or use the links' Special function 'Standard values' for 't-PuTSys'.
- To propagate run times from links onto time profile items, use its Special function 'Set run and dwell times'.
- To propagate run times from PuT lines onto links, use its Special function 'Run times of links from run times of lines'.

The Special functions are accessible in the context menu of the respective network objects in the window 'Network', resp. in the dialog 'Multi-edit: Network -> Links/Lines/... -> (Right-click to open the context menu) -> Multi-edit -> Special functions



By adding or splitting a link the error message 'Invalid format for a length - qokm' appears.

The error message 'Invalid format for a length - qokm' may appear when the spatial framework was adjusted to a geographic system, like WGS84 or GCS_OSGB_1936. Both calculate in degree for ellipsoidal coordinates in Longitude and Latitude and they are both typically limited to Lon=180 and Lat=90. However, the coordinate values exceed (i.e. X=6425743, Y=5808882), because they were allocated by an Cartesian, metric coordinate system and therefore belong to a projected spatial framework. All versions since Visum 12 differ the calculation of link lenghts between geographic and projected spatial frameworks by considering the position of nodes and link polygones on an ellipsoid in case of a geographic spatial framework.

1) Open Network -> Network parameter, choose 'Visum (no projections)' and confirm with OK. This is also a workaround when the correct spatial framework is unknown.
2) Open again Network -> Network parameter and choose 'from file'. Now, you can choose the suitable PRJ-file.

Alternatively, the correct PRJ-file can be choosen directly, too. Deactivate the option 'Transform coordinates in case of changes'. Typically, this happens to networks for which the correct metric spatial framework is not apparently known or is inverted with a geographic spatial framework. That's the reason why this error message mostly appears in the English version.



How can I create or visualise fare zones for all stops?

The editor (available under Network -> PuT fare zones) is best suited for making smaller, manual changes. It often does not provide a clear enough overview when it comes making changes to larger networks.

The following AddIns provide alternatives (Scripts-> VisumAddIn -> PuT):
1) Stop -> FareZone:
This AddIn uses a stop attribute to create fare zones from. This attribute may also list several fare zones per stop, separated by a comma.
This can also be a user-defined attribute, with data taken from some external source. You might simply copy the Stop list to Excel via the 'Copy cells' entry in the context menu, add the attribute values coding the stop to fare zone allocations, copy the attribute values and use the entry 'Paste cells' in the list context menu.

2) POI -> FareZone:
(This AddIn requires POI categories.)
Using this AddIn, you can create fare zones based on already available geographic objects and at the same time link stops to your newly created zones. In Visum, the limitations of fare zones are defined via polygons. The AddIn requires that a POI with a polygon is created for each fare zone and that the polygon includes all stops linked to the fare zone. These polygons could, e.g., be created by importing a shape file containing these fare zones. But even if polygons are drawn manually, they save time compared to linking stops to each fare zone in the Visum fare zone dialog.
3) FareZone -> POI:
Do you want to look at things the other way around? Using this AddIn, you can visualize the geographic expansion of fare zones. In Visum, fare zones have a number of stops, but there is no polygon to define their boundaries. This AddIn creates a POI with a polygon for each fare zone, including all of the zone's stops.

To get more detailed information on any of the AddIn functions, simply click the 'Help' button in the respective AddIn.



Is it possible to use the display of isochrones for destination-related analysis (i.e. accessibility of center), too?

To receive a destination-related instead of an origin-related analysis, the following procedure is suited:
- Excerpt the journey time matrix.
- Extract times to the respective (target-)zone.
- External conversion to an user-defined attribute for zones.
- Read in the attribute an visualize it in 2D.



How to digitalize surfaces and snap points?

You can position new polygon points directly on existing polygon points and merge them, if required. Permit snapping option via Edit > User Preferences > GUI > Network editor menu and define a snap radius.
Then adjacent polygon points of other polygons are displayed as small circles and the mouse pointer turns into a lasso as soon as an existing polygon point can be snapped. This way, you can use existing points explicitly. If you don't want to snap the point just hold down the Shift key or switch off the option 'Permit snapping'.



Is it possible to display railroad lines as black-white dashed line?

Yes, use for the appropriate link type two stroke layers, one covering the other partially. See e.g. in the example KA.ver
(easily found in Help -> Examples -> Open example Karlsruhe)
under Graphic -> Graphic parameters -> Links -> Display the classes 'Rail' and 'PuT'.



Is the special function for link standard values to allocate link type standard values to link attributes also available as procedure or COM method?

No, the procedure 'Edit attribute' and the COM methods 'GetMultiAttValues' and 'SetMulitAttValues' only provide the possibilty to set values for a single attribute. However, there are 2 smart ways to use these functions:
1) By means of the methods 'GetMultiAttValues' and 'SetMultiAttValues' attributes of link types can be read into arrays and then saved to link attributes.
2) Use the procedure 'Edit attribute' and save it as procedures parameters file. This file can be read and executed over COM.

Note: Since Visum12.5 an additional link type attribute 'Strict' is offered. If selecting this, any changes made to the attributes of the link type are propagated to all allocated links of this link type.



How can I add additional stop points to a lineroute?

There are at least two solutions for this:
A) If the line route is already running over the node (or the path) that should now become the route point with its new stop point, you can simply add it as route point:
Activate network object line -> 'all' or 'all stop points' -> select line with new stop point -> set check in the column 'IsRoutePoint'.
B) If the route needs to be changed to add the new stop point, you have to change the route graphically by catching the route (or multiple routes at the same time) with the left mouse button on particular route points and drag it:
1) Add a new stop point on the node or line.
2) Check whether the necessary transport systems are allowed.
3) Overview -> Lines -> Select 'line routes' in the dialog.
4) Click neighboring line:
All traversed line routes are selected. You can now deselect individual routes by clicking and simultaneously holding the key.
5) Right click -> Digitize.
6) Click a neighboring stop point (or route point used as a node) to fix it.
7) Click the neighboring route again, hold the left mouse button and drag the line route 'to the stop point'.
8) Close the dialog 'Digitize the line route' with OK.



How can I import Stops and automatically create a hierarchy of Stops, Stop areas and Stop points?

- If you only have a coordinate list, you can either convert this with a GIS into georeferenced point objects, or create a NET file to read them as Nodes to PTV Visum.
- If the Stops are already available as georeferenced points, you can import them with a Shapefile to PTV Visum as a Nodes.
Then you can integrate these isolated Nodes into the network and at the same time convert them into hierarchies of Stops, Stop areas and Stop points:
- Nodes -> (Right-click to open the context menu -> Aggregate isolated nodes
- Either use the option 'Always as node with stop point' or 'Always just as stop point' because that creates a Stop point (either on the then integrated Node or on the next Link), along with a contiguous Stop area and Stop.
However, if complex hierarchies are needed with multiple Stop points per Stop area and also with multiple Stop areas, these must be edited manually.



How to create connectors?

There are three ways
1. To create them manually
To connect only sensible nodes (e.g. as for PuT only nodes which are linked at least to one stop area) you may set a node filter accordingly and use the option 'Click only active objects'.

2. Using Connectors/Create...
In this way connectors will be created for all active nodes and zones. The maximum length refers to the distance between the nodes and the zone centroids, zone polygones aren't considered. If different values of maximum length shall be used (e.g. TSys bus - 300m/ft, railway - 600m/ft) the process can be executed in several steps. Firstly connect access nodes of all stop areas with distance 300m/ft, thereafter additionally nodes with distance 600m/ft their stop area is served by railway.
PrT connectors can only be connected to nodes with at least one link that is open to a PrT transport system.
PuT connectors can only be connected to nodes which have at least one link on which a transport system of the type PuTWalk or PuTAux is permitted or nodes to which a stop area has been allocated.

3. Scripts/VisumAddIn/PuT/Generate PuT zone connectors
This add-in has been available since Visum 11.5. The advantages of this add-in over the functionality 'Connectors/Create...' are:
- The radius of the catchment area isn't one fix value but an attribute of stop areas.
- The radius doesn't refer to the distance between the nodes and the zone centroids but to the zone polygon: if a zone polygone overlaps the radius creating a connector will be possible.
- The connectors systematically ensure that all PuT lines serving the area of a zone can actually be accessed from the zone via a connector. No PuT line will remain unused simply because it is inaccessible.
- You can specify barrier areas which are never crossed by a connector. Use them to model separating features in your model (e.g. rivers, motorways), which cannot be crossed walking.



Is it possible to allocate nodes to areas by assigning the number of the area (or the content of another attribute) to all nodes that lay inside of the zone polygon?

Yes, proceed as follows:
1) Create a user-defined attribute on nodes that will obtain the zone number (alternatively use an addValue).
2) Nodes -> (Right-clicking) -> Multi-edit -> (Choose this user-defined attribute or an addValue) -> Intersect.
3) In the dialog 'Generate attribute value by intersection with source attribute' -> = Minimum or Maximum (overlapping zones of course not allowed).
4) Parameter for source objects:
- Network object zones.
- Attribute number.




How can I analyse the number of transfers, divided per traffic system pair, for a certain area?

For the complete network, use the list Passenger transfers' 'PuT TSys transfers objects'.
For a certain area:
- Use a 'territory' object to set all contained objects active ('Mark objects in territory for spatial selection').
- Take some AddVal attribute on stops, fill it with 0 and set it to 1 only for active stops.
- Open the list 'Passenger transfer stops / time profiles' (list 'PuT transfer objects'), set it up to group on the attributes:
From time profile item\Line route item\Line route\TSys code
To time profile item\Line route item\Line route\TSys code
From time profile item\Line route item\Stop point\Stop area\Stop\AddValue 1
To time profile item\Line route item\Stop point\Stop area\Stop\AddValue 1
- Use the attribute
Passengers transferring direct (AP)
with the aggregate function 'Sum'.




The chaining of attribute values in a list is cut with '...'. How to chain attribute values over the limit of 255 characters?

The setting 'Maximum string length' may stay blank:
Network -> Network settings/parameters -> Attributes -> 'Maximum string length (blank = unlimited)'.




How can I create a Support Package?

1) Open the directory EXE\ of your PTV Visum installation.
2) Right-click on Diagnostics.exe and select 'Run as administrator'.
The Diagnostics window opens. The Actions tab is shown by default.
3) Click 'Start Visum and use Process Monitor'.
A file selection dialog opens. Process Monitor is available here:
Config files are here:
4) Click 'Open'.
5) If you are experiencing a specific error, then reproduce the error.
6) Close PTV Visum.
7) In the Diagnostics window, click the Support Package tab.
8) Ensure that all diagnostics reports are selected.
9) Press the button 'Create Support Package'.

For any issue regarding the installation of PTV Visum, use the tool Diagnostics to create a Support Package. This is a Zip file holding all relevant files to analyze the issue, but small enough to be sent via the Support form, the Support Portal, or by email.
Note: This tool is installed by the setup for PTV Visum 18.02-08 and later and creates a separate shortcut in the Windows Start menu. If only updates are used, you need to start this tool from the EXE folder.



The Bavarian Surveying Administration plans to replace the previous GK system (Gauss-Krüger) and introduce the European Terrestrial Reference System 1989 (ETRS89) with the Universal Transverse Mercator Projection (UTM).

How can I transform a network from DHDN GK4 to ETRS89 UTM32N?

Make sure that the network meets the following coordinate system and that this is also set:
Network -> Network settings -> (Scale ->) Coordinate system ->

Projected Coordinate Systems -> National Grids -> DHDN 3 Degree Gauss Zone 4_TOWGS.prj

Transform to:
Geographic Coordinate Systems -> World -> WGS 1984.prj

Then transform to the corresponding UTM zone:
Projected Coordinate Systems -> Utm -> Other GCS -> ETRS 1989 UTM Zone 32N.prj



After exchanging the coordinate system, the coordinate transformation leads to an error message:
'Transformation of one or multiple co-ordinates failed.
Object type: Points
Object key: ...'

The set coordinate system is as stated a geographic system (which means: degrees), but some coordinates exceed the maximum of +90N or +180E degrees or minimum of -90N or -180E degrees. Probably, the coordinates of the network meet a metric (projected) coordinate system.
Try to find out which metric (projected) coordinate system actually is used, and set it to that, without the option 'Transform coordinates in case of changes'.



A network seems to be shifted when shown against the background map from BING Maps or OpenStreetMap.

The reason for this shift is the difference in map datum, used by the coordinate system of the network and the coordinate system of the background map (usually Sphere Mercator). For the transformation of the map tiles of the background map from Sphere Mercator via WGS84 to the coordinate system of the network no suitable TOWGS parameter are available in the PRJ file of the coordinate system.

- Add suitable TOWGS parameters to the PRJ file. You can find these for example on
- Or transform the data to WGS84 or UTM using a GIS software.



PTV Visum reproducibly crashes, maybe without a clear error message.

Please provide us with:
a) a screenshot of the complete Visum window including the error message.
b) a crash dump:

To create this:
- Open the Task Manager.
- Reproduce the crash.
- Leave all dialogs open.
- In the Task Manager, select the Visum process (tab 'Details' or 'Processes'), open the context menu and choose 'Create dump file':
- Pack the crash dump file into a zip archive. Please name the zip file following the used release and servicepack to enable us the analysis, e.g. 18.02-04.
- Upload the zip archive to a FTP/cloud space (request one in your support request if needed).



The dialog ''Select spatial reference system'' only appears by reading a network file and not by reading a shapefile.

It ist not defined where the group $Network settings, in which the declaration for the spatial reference system is contained, stands in a network file. That is why Visum asks the spatial reference system before.

With a SHP-file, this may not always be necessary because the spatial reference system could be defined in the belonging PRJ-file.



A network, possibly imported via some interface or created with some older Visum release, is displayed with a shift against the background map.

Note that networks once created without any explicit georeference might not match to the background map. Try to retrieve the original source, like a paper map and the coordinate system of that map.
If the network extents do not exceed about 100 x 100 km, you might try to transform from an (implicit) local coordinate system into a projected coordinate system (like an UTM zone). Using WGS84 coordinates for this transformation is not recommendable, as in geographic coordinate systems the scale changes from the equator towards the poles.

Consider this workaround to correct at least for a large shift by a translation:
- Open two Visum instances, one (A) holding the network and one (B) showing the background map at the wanted location.
- Make sure B is set to the wanted coordinate system.
- Choose two nodes in the network A, for which you can identify the corresponding position in the background map in B.
- Add these as nodes to B too.
- The coordinate values of these nodes are available in A and B in the window 'Quick view' or in the list 'Nodes' as node attributes.
- Copy these values to MS Excel.
- Calculate the differences.
In case of some small shift, consider to use the tool 'Measure distance mode' of the Network editor to estimate the differences.
- Use the dialog 'Transform network co-ordinates' to shift the network to the right location: Network -> Network settings -> Scale -> Transform network co-ordinates
- Set the coordinate system again, and deactivate the option 'Transform coordinates in case of changes'.
- The node coordinate values can also be used to estimate a scale factor and a rotation, which the dialog 'Transform network co-ordinates' can also take as input.
It is recommended to perform the translation, rotation and scale correction in separate steps.



How can I contact the customer support if I have a question or want to report an error?

Make sure to have checked the FAQs first:

You can reach PTV Support following:

Use PTV Visum/Vissim and get this form preallocated with the environment values, like OS and license number:
Menu -> '?' or 'Help' -> (Technical) Support.

Please describe your request as accurately as possible, i.e. which steps lead to a crash. Any solution or workaround will be provided as soon as possible.
Please add a Support package:

Maintenance customers are also supported on modelling issues and software handling.

Feel free to make suggestions for improvement and product development.


  COM and API


How can I set or change the coordinate system by COM?

Use the following sample code for Python:

srsWGS = r'GEOGCS['GCS_WGS_1984',DATUM['D_WGS_1984',SPHEROID['WGS_1984',6378137,298.257223563]],PRIMEM['Greenwich',0],UNIT['Degree',0.017453292519943295]]'

Example for use with VBA:



A COM command like Link.AttValue('NO') = 1300 does not work. What is the reason?

The 'ahead' and 'back' direction of links are modelled as two seperate link objects and share the same number (only the numbers of the from and to nodes are different). To change these by COM, use this function:
SetNo ( [in] int no).



Instantiating Visum from
Set VISUM = CreateObject('Visum.visum.110')
leads to the error message: 'Permission denied'

The licence used does not hold the module 'COM interface' and that is the reason for the error message.
You can check this in the dialog Extras -> License

- Check the wanted license for the module 'COM interface'. Make sure to be using the current license file available at

- If this module is still missing, please notify

Additional tips:
- Make sure to be using the correct class ID:

- If you have multiple identical installations, using slightly different licenses, register the one you need again (with administrator credentials).



How to execute a PuT shortest path search by COM?

Use a RouteSearchPuT Object, that is given a NetElements container with network elements. An example could look like this:

Option Explicit

Sub shortest_path_search_OV()
Dim Visum As New VISUMLIB.Visum
Dim aLink As VISUMLIB.ILink
Dim aNode As VISUMLIB.INode
Dim aZone1 As VISUMLIB.IZone
Dim aZone2 As VISUMLIB.IZone
Dim aNetElementContainer As VISUMLIB.INetElements
Dim aRouteSearchPuT As VISUMLIB.IRouteSearchPuT

Visum.LoadVersion ActiveWorkbook.Worksheets('Einstellungen').Cells(1, 2)

Set aNetElementContainer = Visum.CreateNetElements
Set aRouteSearchPuT = Visum.Analysis.RouteSearchPuT
Set aZone1 = Visum.Net.Zones.ItemByKey(Cells(7, 2).Value)
Set aZone2 = Visum.Net.Zones.ItemByKey(Cells(8, 2).Value)

aNetElementContainer.Add aZone1
aNetElementContainer.Add aZone2

aRouteSearchPuT.Execute aNetElementContainer, 'P', '08:00:00', '1', False, 'ADDVAL1', False

End Sub



Running a VBA script fails with:
'Compile Error: Can't find project or Library.'

This message means, that a referenced library was not found on the used computer, following the EarlyBinding concept. These are typically automations for MS-Office products or for PTV Vision components like PTV Visum or ScriptMuuli.
In the Visual Basic editor following
Extras -> References
i.e. a Visum Object Library will be listed as 'MISSING'. Possibly this component is not available on this machine, or with a different path, or this component is not needed.
Note that the 32 bit Visual Basic editor will not find any 64 bit object libraries automatically.

- In the Visual Basic editor: Extras -> References
- Uncheck the missing reference.
- Click 'Browse' to open the dialog 'Add reference'.
- Browse to the folder i.e. holding a 'VisumXXX.exe', in
C:\Program Files\PTV Vision\PTV Visum XX\Exe\
- Choose to be showing 'executable files (*.EXE, *.DLL)'.
- Choose the 'VisumXXX.exe'.
- Confirm and close both dialogs.

Example test scripts using early and late binding:



The VBA COM line
Set Visum = CreateObject('VISUM.VISUM.180')
fails with the following error message:
'ActiveX component can't create object'.

The Python line
Visum = VisumPy.helpers.CreateVisum(...)
fails with an error message, containing at the end the string:
'Invalid class string'

The computer uses a 32 bit or 64 bit operation system.

PTV Visum needs to be registered again as COM server.

Until Visum 12 use an external tool in the start menu:
Register Visum as COM server (again):
Start -> All programs -> PTV Vision -> Visum -> Tools -> Register as COM server -> (Click right mouse button) -> Execute as Administrator.

Since Visum 11 an internal tool is available:
- Visum 11-12.5:
Extras -> Options -> (Working) Environment -> General -> Register as COM server.
- Visum 13:
Edit -> User Preferences -> Working environment -> Register as COM server.
- Since Visum 14:
Help -> Register as COM server.

Make sure to start PTV Visum with administrator credentials.
This procedure could be necessary again after the computer was rebooted.

Example test scripts using early and late binding:



How to archive matrices from Visum as CSV-file, like:


See the attached skript: .



How can I use a VBA procedure from inside PTV Visum?

Use the AddIn 'Run VBA', which is only available as procedure.

An example for using 'Run VBA' to export the PrT Path list:



How can I include the current filepath and filename to save a version by script?

Use the property

Visum.SaveVersion Visum.UserPreferences.DocumentName



Since I installed PTV Visum 18, Python does not work anymore in PTV Visum 17 (and older), *.py scripts cannot be referenced in the procedure sequence or any AddIn or Python scripts started over COM crash with an error message:
- 'Communication with the Python background script failed'.
- 'Could not start the script component'.
- 'Could not find a matching script component for file extension '.py'.'
- 'pythoncom error: ERROR: server.policy could not create an instance.'

Older versions of PTV Visum (17 and older) were shipped with Python 2.7.03. From PTV Visum 18 Python 2.7.15 is delivered. However, there cannot be multiple parallel installations of Python 2.7 on one system. To ensure a smooth handling of the previous versions (PTV Visum 15/16/17) with Python, install the following update:
- 15.00-24 for PTV Visum 15.
- 16.01-17 or higher for Visum 16.
- 17.01-10 or higher for PTV Visum 17.

If you are using even older versions than PTV Visum 15 (<= 14), you need to manually copy the following DLL files from the
.. \Windows\System32\
folder to the
.. \Program Files\PTV Vision\PTV Visum 14\Exe\
- python27.dll
- pythoncom27.dll
- pythoncomloader27.dll
- pywintypes27.dll



Python Add-Ins return error messages like:
- ''Could not start the script component''.
- ''IOError: [Errno 13] Permission denied: 'C:\\Program Files\\Python26\\lib\\site-packages\\win32com\\gen_py\\' pythoncom error: Unexpected gateway error''.

Python25/26 was installed in:
This is not the recommended path. Python25/26 always belongs to:

Recommendation: Install Visum and Python completely new:
1) Uninstall all Visum installations.
2) Uninstall all Python components.
3) Remove manually any folders like:
- C:\Python…
- C:\Program..\Python…
- C:\Program...\PTV_Vision\...
4) Reboot the computer.
5) Download the current setup for the latest Visum release.
6) First, install only this current setup, including 'Python' (do not change its standard folder).



How can I open an external matrix over COM?

An example using the IMatrix.Open-method (Python):

Mat = Visum.Net.Matrices.ItemByKey('1')

Alternatively use this way over the demand segment, when the matrix number or code cannot be used (VBA):

To open a new external matrix (VBA):

Dim myNewMatrixEditorObject As IMatrixTable
Set myNewMatrixEditorObject = Visum.CreateMatrixTable(matrixPath)



Is it possible to use the special function 'Set lengths' (Lines -> Multi-edit -> Lineroutes -> Multi-edit Lineroutes -> Special functions) over the COM interface?

Yes, the method SetItemLengthsFromNetwork is not available in the class ILineroutes, but in the class ILineRoute.
For Each aLineRoute In Visum.Net.LineRoutes

Complete example:



How can I export only active network elements (only active links) as shapefile?

Use an object of the class IExportShapeFilePara, and set the attribute OnlyActive:
myExportShapeFileParameterObject.AttValue('ONLYACTIVE') = 1

Code example:



A script started over COM has crashed with error messages like:
- 'Communication with the Python background script failed'.
- 'Could not start the script component'.
- 'Could not find a matching script component for file extension '.py'.'
- 'pythoncom error: ERROR: server.policy could not create an instance.'

- Register the COM server again:
PTV Visum -> Help -> Register as COM server
(In case this needs to be repeated, start PTV Visum as Administrator.)
- Check the Python installation:
Windows Start button -> Settings -> Apps -> Python -> Change -> Repair Python -> Finish
(Older OS: Control Panel -> Programs -> Programs and Features)



How can I import a Shapefile into a POI category?

Shapefiles are imported using the method IVisum.ImportShapefile, which needs an IImportShapeFilePara object, offering an own method AttValue. Use this to set the attribute 'POIKey', corresponding to the 'POI category' in the dialog 'Read shapefile', with the POI category's number.

POI categories can be edited using the class INet.IPOICategory and its method AttValue. To add one, use the method INet.AddPOICategory.




Where can I find documentation on the Visum COM API?

1) You can find an introduction to scripting with the Visum COM API in
Help -> Introduction to the Visum COM-API^
leading to the file
c:\Program Files\PTV Vision\PTV Visum 17\Doc\Eng\Introduction to the PTV Visum COM-API.pdf

2) All properties and methods are documented in:
Help -> COM help
and leads to the chapters 'Visum COM' and 'Visum - Python'.

3) The folder
%Public%\Documents\PTV Vision\PTV Visum 17\COM\
includes sample scripts.

4) In the path
%ProgramFiles%\PTV Vision\PTV Visum 17\Exe\AddIns
you can find the source code of all AddIns being part of the standard installation. They are often a bit more advanced, but might be of interest when needing a template for an AddIn or if you want to adapt an existing AddIn.

5) Following
you can find two recorded webinars about COM:
- Introduction to Scripting and COM automation in PTV Visum
- Advanced applications of scripting and COM automation in PTV Visum



How can I set a header and footer and print the network editor to PDF by COM?

- Use the class Visum.Net.PrintParameters.PrintFrame.Footer:

Example code:
Dim myPrintFrameFooter As VISUMLIB.IPrintFrameFooter
Dim myPrintFrameFooterCell As VISUMLIB.IPrintFrameFooterCell

Set myPrintFrameFooter = Visum.Net.PrintParameters.PrintFrame.Footer
myPrintFrameFooter.AttValue('TextSize') = 6

Set myPrintFrameFooterCell = Visum.Net.PrintParameters.PrintFrame.Footer.Columns.Item(1).Rows.Item(1)
myPrintFrameFooterCell.AttValue('UserDefinedText') = 'any userdefined string combination'

- Change the standard printer to a PDF printer.

Complete example:



In a big model, the program crashes when you try to run any Python-script or add-In.

Visum 11.5 is affected by an error in the memory management of the component wxPython that may cause an crash for really big version files (> 1 GB). In Visum 12, this is corrected with a new version of wxPython. Workaround:
1) Start Visum.
2) Run any add-In (i.e. Python console) and close it again.
3) Load the version file.
4) Run the add-In's.



How to execute a PrT shortest path search by COM?

An example for a shortest path search between two nodes:

Set NetElementContainer = Visum.CreateNetElements
Set Node = Visum.Net.Nodes.ItemByKey(10)
NetElementContainer.Add Node
Set Node = Visum.Net.Nodes.ItemByKey(40)
NetElementContainer.Add Node
'Route search with current speed tCur
Set RouteSearchPrT = Visum.Analysis.RouteSearchPrT
VSysCode = 'C'
RouteSearchPrT.Execute NetElementContainer, VSysCode, 1

A more complex example, displaying the result into a list and write the path legs to an attribute file:



How can I exchange the stop point of a lineroute by COM?
How can I access the time profile item attribute 'Profile point'?

When using the list 'Line route items' the attribute StoppointNo is not editable, because the datamodel forces to maintain all its dependencies.
Instead, the dialog 'Edit line route' offers the attribute 'IsRoutePoint' to remove and add stop points. The checkbox 'Profile point' is not an attribute, but evokes methods to add or remove time profile items.

In COM it is similar:
Removing a stoppoint from a lineroute is simply setting an attribute:
aLineRouteItem.AttValue('IsRoutePoint') = False

Once a new stop point is defined on links or nodes of a lineroute, a corresponding object linerouteitem is created automatically and it only depends of the same attribute of the new linerouteitem to use it:
aLineRouteItem.AttValue('IsRoutePoint') = True

A corresponding timeprofileitem needs to be added separately:
Set aTimeProfileItem = aTimeProfile.AddTimeProfileItem(aLineRouteItem)

Serving it is only a matter of attributes:
aTimeProfileItem.AttValue('Alight') = True
aTimeProfileItem.AttValue('Board') = True




How can I edit matrix values over COM using Excel/VBA?

Following variants are possible:
- By referencing the matrix value by zone numbers:
Visum.Net.ODPairs.ItemByKey(100, 200).AttValue('MatValue(1)') = 1000

- By referencing the matrix value by row and column.
Visum.Net.Matrices.ItemByKey(1).SetValue 1, 2, 5000

- More efficient is using a safearray as input:
Visum.Net.Matrices.ItemByKey(1).SetValues myArray

Example codes are available in:



Can Excel 32 bit instantiate ScriptMuuli 64 bit or PTV Visum 64 bit?

For PTV Visum yes, because PTV Visum runs as a 'out of process' COM server (*.exe), Excel VBA can instantiate both 32 bit and 64 bit Visum.
This is different for the component ScriptMuuli, as this is an 'in-process' COM-server (*.dll): Excel 32 bit CAN ONLY instantiate ScriptMuuli 32 bit and CANNOT instantiate ScriptMuuli 64 bit.
- Use Excel 64 bit to instantiate ScriptMuuli 64 bit (available with Microsoft Office 2010).
- Or install Visum 32 bit addditionally to be able to use ScriptMuuli 32 bit.

How to find out whether Excel is 32 or 64 bit?
File -> Account -> About Excel -> (in the first line of the dialog)



How can I position the network editor to display certain network objects?

The method
can use some single network object as argument.

To zoom upon multiple network objects, use
to gather the X- and Y-coordinates as arrays. Use these to estimate the corners for a bounding box, which can be used for the method:
Visum.Graphic.SetWindow xMin, yMin, xMax, yMax



When instanciating Visum by COM, how can I distinguish between 32 and 64 bit Visum installations?

If both a 32 bit and a 64 bit installation are available for example for Visum13, use the class Ids 'Visum.Visum-32.130' or 'Visum.Visum-64.130':
- Set Visum = CreateObject('Visum.Visum-32.130')
- Set Visum = CreateObject('Visum.Visum-64.130')



Where do I find a list of all used attributes in Visum which can be both used interactively in lists and addressed via COM by AttValue(...)/SetAttValue(...)?

These are listed in the file attribute.xls: ...\PTV_Vision\VISUMXXX\Doc\En\.
The short names are in the column AttributeID.


  Other procedures


The procedure TFlowFuzzy failed. The demand matrix could not be corrected:
'Demand segment .. was assigned but no paths were saved.
Procedure 'TFlowFuzzy' failed.'

To find a solution, make sure the setting for
Calculate -> General Procedure settings -> PrT settings -> Assignment -> Save paths
is set to 'As routes' (for the combination with a static assignment).



Running TFlowFuzzy leads to a warning:
'An error occurred during the calculation of the new demand matrix. The corrected demand for at least one relation is not within the valid value range. Please check the demand of the relations listed in the log file with a very large correction factor. If this demand is very small (approximately < 10^-5), it should be set to 0 and, if necessary, the demand matrix should be scaled in such a way that the total demand is retained.'

Some calculated volumes and count values differ too much, while the correction range is too low.
Please note that TFlowFuzzy is a mathematical procedure to correct an already nearly matching demand matrix. It was never intended to enable the estimation of a demand matrix starting from a dummy matrix.

Check the following:
- The error message might point to probably rather not relevant small demand values, which receive a proportionally rather high corrected value. Recommendation: Initialize values < 0.00001 to 0.
- Start with higher bandwidths (tolerance values), and if a solution is found lower them again.
- Choose a lower max. correction factor.
- Choose a higher alpha level to include a wider range of values into the fuzzy set. In general this approach is recommended: start with a higher alpha level, run TFlowFuzzy and reduce alpha to lower values step by step.
- Take only a few counts and demand entries first, preferably the higher numbers. If this already fails, you need to look for an error in this group, thus reduce the number of entries and counts again. Once you succeed, you can add more and more counts and demand entries. Remember TFlowFuzzy can help you to correct an already, nearly correct demand matrix, based upon counted values. Take care that the few largest counted values you are using or adding do make sense and match to your demand matrix.
- Check for contradictory counted values. Leave those values out which seem to be unrealistic or cannot be reached.
- Check the reasonability of the paths found by the assignment. Take care of its parameters and number of iterations.
- Use the analysis tools Protocol, Diagnosis and Process statistics (see the Online Help for further instructions, in the dialog press F1): TFlowFuzzy -> Parameters.

Use the example and tutorial files:
Help -> Examples -> Open Examples directory
1) folder c:\Users\Public\Documents\PTV Vision\PTV Visum 18\Examples\Matrix TFlowFuzzy\
2) folder c:\Users\Public\Documents\PTV Vision\PTV Visum 18\Tutorials\TFlowFuzzy\

Refer also to:



Why are the results of an assignment different in a subnetwork?

Assignment results of subnetworks generally cannot be compared to the assignment results of their original networks, because paths get cut off and shortened, impedances sum up differently and volumes are shifted. Using subnetworks is only sensible when analysing local effects which are independent of the surrounding network. Using subnetworks is not sensible to implement changes in the subnetwork and port them back to the entire network. Using subnetworks also is not sensible to save memory requirements in the assignment. In that case, use other strategies instead:
1) Reduce the relevant demand for filtered zones and the setting 'only pairs of active zones' and 'considered relations'.
2) PuT: Reduce the relevant PuT lines by a filter for PuT lines and use the option 'Regard only active vehicle journey sections' which is offered in multiple dialogs.
3) Stop non-used protocols.
4) PuT: Use a connection file for repeated assignments.
5) Critically check the assignment parameters.
6) PuT: Be careful when opening links for transport systems of type PuT Walk, use this only for single links when really needed.



Running the procedure 'HBEFA-based emission calculation' leads to a warning:
'Emission factors were requested that are not available in the Handbook of Emission Factors (HBEFA). They are listed in the message file.'

HBEFA defines only a subset out of all possible combinations of attributes, whereas in a Visum model any combination might be possible. To avoid the message only use the combinations which are available for the HBEFA calculation.
See also the manual and the document
c:\Users\Public\Documents\PTV Vision\PTV Visum 15\Examples\HBEFA_Emissions\HBEFA_Emissions_Desc_ENG.pdf
on page 3:
'After running the procedure, look at the trace file for messages. VISUM reports every link for which the traffic situation in the sense of HBEFA 3.1 and the provided free flow speed do not match,...'

1) Check the total share of segments which do not have emission factors is below a certain threshold, like 1%.
2) Check whether such segments are typically Euro-0 class, i.e. are likely to disappear or exist in insignificant numbers.



Running the Subnetwork generator leads to an error message:
'Number of rows .. of demand segment .. exceeds maximum 2147483647. Functions based on individual routes, such as the route list and subnetwork generator, are not available. Bush-based functions, such as flow bundle, OD pair filter, and TFlowFuzzy, however, are still available. To limit the number of routes, use an OD pair filter or flow bundle.'

The subnetwork generator cannot process this number of routes available in this model, it is not possible to create any subnetwork including routes.
Workaround: Create a subnetwork without routes, by initializing the assignment: Calculate -> Initialize assignment
When relying on the creation of subnetworks, consider to use an assignment method producing less routes.



A line blocking fails with the following error message:
'Interlining is either not permitted or not possible on one of the required relations, or the capacities of the start and end depots are insufficient compared to the number of required vehicles. No solution could be found'.

1) Check whether the parameter 'Interlining permissible' is set:
Line blocking parameters -> Interlining.
2) Check whether the empty trip-TSys is set for all vehicle combinations corresponding to the permitted TSys in the network.
3) Write for all relevant transport systems an interlining matrix (i.e. for the parameter t_PuTSys) with the procedure step 'PuT interlining matrix', to check these for non-existing connections. The parameter will take the value 999999.
4) Check with the list 'Stop points - basis' whether the attribute 'IsDepot' is set. Also check whether the attribute 'DepotCapacity(...)' holds realistic values.



Which methods are offered for matrix correction and for updating of existing demand matrices and which differences do they have?

Basically, the following methods are available:
1) TFlowFuzzy:
- To adjust a given OD matrix in such a way that the result of the assignment closely matches the observed link volumes or origin/destination travel demand:
- For PrT and PuT.
- For Link volumes.
- For OD travel demand by zone.
- For Turn volumes at nodes.
- For Any combination of these three.
- Counts and tolerances.
- Use of user defined attributes.

2) Matrix calibration:
- Calibration procedure according to Lohse.
- Only counts, no tolerances.
- Only AddValues, no user defined attributes.

3) Projecting PrT Path Volumes:
- Adjusts the OD-matrix of a certain PrT Demand segment to count data of certain manually choosen links.
- Only counts, no tolerances.
- Only AddValues, no user defined attributes.



Formation of a subnetwork causes an error:
'Creating subnetwork'/'Insufficient storage'/'Runtime Error!'.

1) If you use Visum 32 bit on a 32 bit operating system, you should activate the 3 Gb option to increase the virtual address space. See also VIS11878 (Windows XP) or VIS10302 (VISTA/Windows 7).
2) Activate matrix-cache and apply it to this version file:
Extras -> Options -> Files & protocols -> Matrices -> Enable swap file.
3) File -> File properties -> Lagged matrix data loading on demand.
4) If the version file was only opened to create a subnetwork, but the memory does not suffice to format a subnetwork:
Calculate -> Initialize assignment. Thereby you can possibly save memory, however no cordon zones will be created and no matrices will be adopted into the subnetwork. However, you can initialize PrT and PuT assignments differentiated from each other:
Calculate -> Procedure -> Operations -> Paste -> Assignment -> Init assignment -> Procedure -> PrT or PuT.




The Start page cannot be shown completely, instead an error message is shown:
'Currently only a part of all available information can be shown because no internet connection is established with this computer. Please connect to the internet and reopen the start page to benefit from all the services provided by the start page and to receive the latest news on PTV Visum.'

- With Windows 7 it can happen that the Start page cannot be displayed. The solution is still in progress and will be released as #18049 in the Release Notes.
- The Start page uses the default port 80 for HTTP requests, which is possibly blocked in this network. Port settings are currently not available.



The dialog language is German. How to change it to English?

Change the following setting:
Hilfe -> Lizenz -> Sprache 1 -> English
Help -> License -> Language 1 -> English



Sometimes, the dialogs 'insert line/line route' or 'insert stop point (options)' do not appear.

After undocking a second screen, these dialogs are still shown on the position, that once was on this second screen and are not visible any more now. You can solve this as follows:
Extras -> Options -> User interface -> reset dialog position.



Why is the Node attribute 'ControlType' not available in a dialog or list, or why can't it be chosen from the dialog '..: select attributes'?
This can happen in the following dialogs (Lists, Editors):
- The dialog 'Quick view (Nodes)'.
- The dialog 'Create node'.
- The List 'Nodes'.
- The Junction editor with the tabs 'Geometry' and 'Signal timing'.

The Add-on 'JEDI'/'Junction editor and control' is not contained in the used license.
Please refer to




Starting Visum the error message 'License ... invalid' appears. Who can help here?

Visum licenses possibly are limited. In this case, contact the Traffic Customer Service (



PTV Visum/PTV Vissim does not start and shows an error message like:
'CodeMeter License Server is not a network server, Error 111.'
'CodeMeter Runtime Server is not a network server, Error 111'

Only on the license server:
Open 'CodeMeter WebAdmin':
System tray -> CodeMeter Control center -> WebAdmin -> Configuration -> Server -> Server Access
Only for the 'Network server': Activate the checkbox 'Enable' or 'Run Network Server', click 'Apply', and restart the service:
CodeMeter Control center -> Action -> Stop CodeMeter service
CodeMeter Control center -> Action -> Start CodeMeter service



Starting PTV Visum 18/PTV Vissim 11 fails with an error message:
'Error when checking out the corresponding old license (server: .., license number: 900xxxxxx). The license number 900xxxxxx [has] not [been] found on any Codemeter stick. Error code: 200'
'If you have more than one Codemeter stick please check if the correct stick is plugged in. For a network dongle, please check the server search list in Codemeter WebAdmin, too.'

Workaround: Update to the current service pack:



The dialog 'License Management' shows a warning:
'No CodeMeter stick found'

- If running Windows 7 and CodeMeter 6.50c is installed, downgrade to CodeMeter 6.20:

- Any locally used, single seat license does NOT need the option 'Set codemeter runtime as server'. Only when operating a network license on a license server the option 'Set codemeter runtime as server' MUST be set.
- The setup checks the OS, and offers an option 'Install Codemeter Runtime 6.20' or 6.50c, depending on the OS.

- For all other cases, please refer to:



While running the setup for PTV Visum 18, an error message is displayed:
'The addressed CmContainer has an invalid Firmware Version (e.g. too old), Error 224'

The dongle's firmware needs to be updated. For instructions see:
See also: , Ch. 6.3.

Note on network licenses: Issued licenses will be withdrawn, users will receive an error message and already running longterm processes might be terminated. It is not recommended to run the update during normal operation, announce a service window instead.



Starting PTV Visum fails with an error message:
- 'Error when checking out the main license server (server: .., license number: ..). The license number 10000 has not been found on a Codemeter stick. Error code: 200.'
- 'One of the following licenses is required:
* CodeMeter 100321:900000000
Failure reason: CodeMeter License Server not found, Error 101.'

- 'One of the following Licenses is required.
CodeMeter 100321:.. CmContainer Entry not found, Error 200.'
- 'Cannot start program'.
- 'Expected customer no.: 900011111'.
- 'Error@AllocateHandle: CmStick Entry not found, Error 200'.
- 'Error@AllocateNetworkHandle: CodeMeter Runtime Server is not found, Error 101' or 'Failure reason: CodeMeter License Server not found, Error 101.'

The following item could be contained, too:
'Error@AllocateHandle: The Expiration Time has expired - the encryption cannot be operated, Error 35'.

It is a network license and not a single-user license.

The network license can not be found. Reasons can be:
1) The limit date is exceeded. How to proceed, see
2) The license server could not be found. In that case please check the server search list in the CodeMeter WebAdmin (see Overview_CodeMeter.pdf, ch. 4.4).
System tray -> CodeMeter Control center -> WebAdmin -> Configuration -> Basic -> Server Search List
3) The CodeMeter installation at the license server was not yet started using the option 'Run Network Server' (see Overview_CodeMeter.pdf, ch. 3.3).
4) The license requested by a client pc is not available on the license server.
5) The network connection between client and server could not be established.



The background map for the map service 'Bing Maps (aerophoto)' is not shown or a warning is displayed:
'The Bing Maps License is expired.'
The background map for the map service 'OpenStreetMap (Mapnik)' is working.



PTV Vissim or PTV Visum does not start. Instead an error message is shown:

- 'Requested license, number .., was temporary and has expired. (Error code 35). Please contact your distributor regarding the extension of your license.'

- 'The expiration date of the requested license number .. has passed. (Error code 35).
Please contact your distributor for a renewal of your license.'

- 'The program cannot be started.
Expected customer number: 900111111.
Error@AllocateHandle: The Expiration Time is overrun - the en-/decryption cannot be operated, Error 35.'

The error message might state also following entries:
'Error@AllocateHandle: CmContainer-Entry not found, Error 200.'
'Error@AllocateNetworkHandle: CodeMeter RunTime Server not found, Error 101.'

Error 35: Dongle is limited in time
Error 200: License is limited in time or license No. cannot been found

This is a single workplace and no network license.

During the installation, a time-limited license file has probably been choosen. The limit date can be found in the file name, for example: (up to Visum14, afterwards activation via WebDepot).

Please check the download site for a current unlimited license file:
For example for Visum14 64 bit:

Please use these tools to exchange a license, available at the same site:
- LicenseUpdater_win32.exe for a 32 bit installation.
- LicenseUpdater_x64.exe for a 64 bit installation.

If the CmDust report contains the error message 'API Error 35 (EXPIRATION TIME OVERRUN) occurred!', please check the download site for a CodeMeterUpdate file:
Unpack the zip file and double-click the contained *.WibuCmRaU file, while the CodeMeter dongle is plugged into the computer.

If an expected unlimited license file (and in case a CodeMeterUpdate file) is not available, please contact:



On starting the software, in the dialog 'License Management', after clicking on 'Borrow license' and adding the current Activation key an error message is displayed:
'Invalid activation key'

The activation key is expired. Please request a new activation key on:



Every time PTV Visum/PTV Vissim is started, a dialog is shown:
'A license update was installed on the CodeMeter stick. Therefore you need to select new licenses.'
'You have installed a license update on the CodeMeter stick. Therefore you need to select new licenses.'

When in the dialog 'License Management' a license has been selected and confirmed with the button 'Start' an error message is shown:
'The license data could not be saved to file 'c:\ProgramData\PTV Vision\PTV Visum 18\':
Access to the path 'c:\ProgramData\PTV Vision\PTV Visum 18\' is denied.'

The file was once defined by an administrator.
1) Workaround if it is not needed anymore:
- Open a Windows Explorer with administrator credentials.
- Delete the file
from the folder
%programdata%\PTV Vision\PTV Visum xx\
(if present)
- Restart PTV Visum once as Administrator and select the license in the dialog 'License Management'. If the dialog is not shown: Help -> License -> Manage licenses.
This will overwrite the file:
%AppData%\Roaming\PTV Vision\PTV Visum xx\

2) Workaround if it is still needed:
- Start PTV Visum/PTV Vissim on one client.
- Select the correct license.
- Copy the file
from the folder
%programdata%\PTV Vision\PTV Visum xx\
to all other clients.



The following error messages appear when starting PTV Visum:
'The license data cannot be encoded.'
'The required license (..) is damaged (reason: ..) and can no longer be used. Please contact the support department to obtain an update for your license.'



PTV Visum/PTV Vissim does not start. Instead an error message is shown:
- 'Error@AllocateHandle: CmContainer Entry not found, error 200'.
- 'CmStick Entry not found, error 200'.

In the CmDust report this dongle is not listed anymore as a CmContainer, possibly neither as an available drive.
(In case of a single workplace license in the CmDust report of the client, in case of a network license in the CmDust report of the server.)

A single workplace license is expected on the local machine, a network license can be found on any machine in the network (including the local machine).
When plugging this dongle out and in, its LED will blink in red and green. The last blink should be green, if not this dongle could be defective.
In that case create a CmDust report (of client and server), and a context file:

- CmDust report:

Start -> Programs -> Codemeter -> Tools -> CmDust.
This tool creates a file called CmDust-Result.log (the containing folder is opened automatically).

- Context file:

Taskbar -> System tray -> CodeMeter Control center -> License -> License Update -> Next -> Option 'Create license request' -> Next -> Option 'Extend existing license' -> Next -> Commit

Please send these to:



The following error message appears when starting PTV Visum:
- 'The selected license (server: .. box: .., license number: ..) cannot be used, since the related CodeMeter stick is not available.'
- 'The selected license cannot be used, since the related CodeMeter stick is not available.'

The setting from the license selection is saved in the file ''. If this file contains an invalid setting, the error message will be displayed.
The solution is to delete this file. This forces a new license selection.
Depending on the configuration, this file is in %appdata% or %programdata%.
Important: Changes in %programdata% are only possible with administrator rights.

- Open Windows Explorer.
- Open the path %appdata%\PTV Vision\.
- Open the Vissim folder (e.g. ..\PTV Visum 2020\ )
- If available, delete the file ''.
- Open the path %programdata%\PTV Vision\.
- Open the Vissim folder (e.g. ..\PTV Visum 2020\ ).
- If available, delete the file '' with administrator rights.
- Restart PTV Visum.



During a PTV Visum session the title bar shows the string 'INVALID DONGLE HANDLE' and an error message is shown:
'One of the following licenses is requiered:
. CodeMeter 100321:900000000
Failure reason: The request cannot be sent to another CodeMeter License Server, Error 102.'

Some antivirus software like F-Secure offer a 'Deep scan function', which might lead to the termination of CodeMeter. To prevent this, add the CMRuntime.exe to the antivirus whitelist.



When trying to check out a license in the dialog 'License Management' or when starting the software, an error message is displayed:
'Featuremap .. is used more than once'



When starting a new PTV Visum/PTV Vissim release (e.g. PTV Visum 18) an error message is displayed:
'The maintenance period of the requested license (server: .., license number: 900xxxxxx) has expired. The lilcense can therefore not be used. Update your license with the activation code sent to you. Please check your email account or contact your administrator.'
'You cannot use this license (server: .., license number: 900xxxxxx), because the maintenance period has been breached.'

This error message occurs when a license activation ticket was not yet used: e.g. PTV Visum 17 was already installed and running, then a user installs PTV Visum 18 and tries to start it.

Check whether PTV Order Management already sent you a license activation ticket by email. If so, then perform the following steps.

1) Insert the dongle into a local USB port.
2) Open this link in Chrome or Firefox (not Edge or Internet Explorer):
3) Enter the license ticket activation code that you received and follow the instructions.

If any license activation ticket should be missing, please contact mentioning the corresponding License No.
Note: Without any valid maintenance contract, no license activation ticket was sent. Refer to your local distributor or email



CodeMeter returns an error message that I don't understand. What can I do?

1) Read in the FAQs in the section 'Licensing' whether the error message is explained here.
2) Send us a support request:

To analyze the cause for this error message we need a CmDust report (of client and server), and a context file:

- CmDust report:
Start -> Programs -> Codemeter -> Tools -> CmDust.
This tool creates a file called CmDust-Result.log (the containing folder is opened automatically).

- Context file:
Taskbar -> System tray -> CodeMeter Control center -> License -> License Update -> Next -> Option 'Create license request' -> Next -> Option 'Extend existing license' -> Next -> Commit

Tip: Pack all files in a ZIP file and attach this to the support form.

Please refer to the following document for further instructions:

- Chap. 7.1 (Direct Support -> 4) creating a CmDust report
- Chap. 6.1 Creating a context file



In the WebDepot
when clicking in the step 'Available Licenses' on 'Activate Selected Licenses Now' an error message is displayed:
'An internal error has occurred. Please try again later.

The dongle's firmware needs to be updated. For instructions see:
See also: , Ch. 6.3.

Note on network licenses: Issued licenses will be withdrawn, users will receive an error message and already running longterm processes might be terminated. It is not recommended to run the update during normal operation, announce a service window instead.

Note: Mind the order of the installation and license activation process (in this example only for maintenance customers):

This error can occur, when forgetting the second step:



Updating the firmware on a CodeMeter dongle fails:
'Connection to the update server failed (Error WB5000). Please check the selected server name and your network connection.'

To update the firmware, you need an internet connection with the update server of Wibu Systems. In many cases from inside a network, this connection needs to pass a proxy server.
An automatic way to setup this, can be found in: - section 6.4

The proxy server can also be set manually in the CodeMeter WebAdmin:
Systemtray -> CodeMeter Control center -> WebAdmin -> Configuration -> Proxy

You might copy the settings available from:
Control panel -> Internet Options -> Connections -> LAN settings

Workaround: Try to perform the update on another computer, or from outside the network.



Where do I find information about the license size and available add-ons?

The characteristic of the actual network size are listed under Extras -> License. Here you can get information about add-ons as well. Unlocked moduls can be seperately activated or deactivated here. Demanding to change your license please apply to our marketing department under:



1) Can I use a single-workplace license over Remote Desktop?

2) PTV Visum does not start. Instead an error message displayed:
'The user maximum of the CodeMeter network is reached, Error 212.'
'All existing licenses of the network dongle are already used by other computers. Error code: 212.'
The Eventlog in the CmDust report states:
'API Event WB218 (NO LICENSE AVAILABLE) occurred (returned to caller)'

1) Yes, but only as a single user on a desktop OS.

2) In that case you need to differentiate whether a single-workplace license or a network license is used:
- When trying to access a single-workplace license over Remote Desktop on a server OS, this is not possible.
Solution: Upgrade to a network license. Please contact or your local distributor.

- When trying to access alternately locally and through Remote Desktop a single-workplace license on a desktop OS,
- or when multiple users try to access a single network license (with or without Remote Desktop),
- or when a user tries to access a single network license alternately locally and through Remote Desktop,
the available licenses can be already allocated.

The reason: For each available network license, a session ID is counted and allows 5 parallel instances. Logging off and logging in again via Remote Desktop can lead to a new session ID. This feature has been introduced by WIBU Systems AG for the product CodeMeter to avoid that parallel logins with the same user account permit multiple license assignments.
- Perform sessions with PTV Visum either locally or through Remote Desktop, but not alternately when e.g. calculations are in progress.
- Do not log off the Remote Desktop session to preserve the session ID.
- Always start PTV Visum 'As administrator' if possible.
- Purchase additional users for your network license.


  Data model


How to extrapolate indicators like volume, passenger kilometers and revenue from analysis period (AP) to analysis horizon (AH)?

Such a projection (typically from daily to yearly values) is done by means of the projection factor.
Dependent on the indicator to be calculated the projection factor can be set for PuT valid days (Network -> PuT valid days) or demand segments (Demand -> TSys/Modes/DSegs -> Demand segments -> Edit).



How are the cross-section values of link labes calculated? At attributes like 'name' only one value of dircetion is suggested.

At the link labels the cross-section of both directions is suggested. What is suggested as cross-section can be defined for each link attribut. Many attributes get add up (i.e. number of routes, link volumes, user-defined attributes), for others, the average (i.e. v0 PrT), the maximum (i.e. length, link type, slope) or the minimum (i.e. plan no.) is suggested. For attributes that may contain text (i.e. name) there is no average - in this case the value of the direction whose start node is smaller than the destination node is taken. For user-defined attributes, the average-logic can be defined by the user.



What do the codes AH and AP mean and what are time intervals?

Visum offers several time intervals for analysis. Thereby, it is differed between analysis period (AP), analysis horizon (AH) and time intervals (TI). Here, AH is an over a projection factor selectable multiple of AP. ZI mostly is a user-defined time slot (mostly within AP).



During the reading additively of an Access-Database with PuT lines the error message 'Mandatory attribute element index invalid' is shown by the vehicle profile element. The attribut exists in the table and is set correctly.

The message is shown in one of the following cases:
- The network allready contains the line that is about to be imported to the network.
- In the parameter settings of importing the database the conflict avoidance is selected to 'ignore'.

The time profile already is contained in the network, with an index (LRELEMINDEX) of 1 to 7. The index in the database that is about to be imported reaches from 1 to 8. During the skipping, the entrys are compared but because the index 8 in the model is missing (and is not added because of the setting 'ignore') you get the error message 'Mandatory attribute element index invalid'. Because of the line hierarchie there are inherited error messages generated, e.g. for the vehicle journeys. If you choose the parameter settings by 'frequent cases > Read timetable' or change the settings manually from 'ignore' to 'overwrite object/course' the error message will not be shown again because the line route will be completed to the index 1 to 8 before.


  Timetable editor


How to edit PuT timetables very quickly rather than editing each line manually

Using the graphical or tabular timetable editor you can select several vehicle journeys and change them at one time.
You may use lists to edit or delete net elements. The editable fields are shown with a white background, not editable rows are grey.
You can copy and paste the list content to EXCEL, modify there and back again.
You may use Multi-edit… to set attributes.
To insert many vehicle journeys for several lines at one time use Scripts->VisumAddIn->PuT->Create Regular Timetable



A) What is the difference between passenger trip chains, forced chainings and coupling vehicle journeys?
B) How can I create passenger trip chains for two vehicle journey sections?
C) How can I couple two vehicle journeys?

Find an example for passenger trip chains and coupling vehicle journeys here:

A) - Passenger trip chains combine two not overlapping vehicle journeys running between the stops A-B and B-C, to ensure a transition of passengers without transfer.
Note that the variant 'Forced chainings' in the data model is designated to ensure the (consecutive) chaining up of vehicle journey sections in the results of line blocking, to be served by the identical vehicle combination.
- Coupling vehicle journeys combines overlapping vehicle journeys, for example two vehicle journeys running between the stops A-B-C and A-B-D are coupled on the section A-B. They are separated in B and run alone on B-C and B-D.

B) To add passenger trip chains proceed as follows:
1) In the Timetable editor, click 'Line mode: Vehicle journey sections'.
2) Pull/adjust the sections ruler down to divide the timetable editor in a vehicle journeys pane and a vehicle journey sections pane. (Reference: User Manual The tabular timetable window)
3) In the vehicle journey sections pane, add the attribute 'Passenger trip chain on vehicle journey section (1)'.
4) For a vehicle journey, right-click this attribute and choose in the context menu 'Edit chained up vehicle journey sections'.
5) In the dialog 'Define chained up vehicle journey sections for vehicle journey section ..', click the button 'Define chained up vehicle journey section'.
6) Optional: In the dialog 'Define chaining for vehicle journey section ..' change the filter criterion 'Only chained up vehicle journey sections with a maximum duration (empty time) of' and set it to > 5 min (e.g. 12 min). Click on 'Continue'.
7) Select this vehicle journey by clicking its attribute 'Selection'.
8) Leave with 'Finish' and 'OK'.

C) In the timetable editor, select two vehicle journeys and click the button 'Couple vehicle journeys'. This will open the dialog 'Couple vehicle journey ...'
Reference: Manual Coupling vehicle journeys ('how to do it'), Coupling of vehicle journeys ('what is it'), see also'Editing time profile items' in 15.32.5 Managing time profiles.




When choosing the map service 'OpenStreetMap...' or 'Bing Maps', while a (local/national) coordinate system is already active, Visum displays a dialog with the following text:

'You have chosen a map service that supports map display per tile.
Maps can only be displayed per tile if Visum uses the same projection as the map service.
Otherwise, the map can only be displayed after all tiles have been downloaded and transformed.
Do you really want to change the projection and recalculate all network coordinates?'

What should I do?

This dialog points to the fact, that the chosen map service uses a different coordinate system than currently active.
'Retain projection' will cause Visum to transform and resample the downloaded map tiles. This might degrade image sharpness.
For most networks, using local or national coordinate systems like UTM, 'Retain projection' will be the best choice.
When choosing 'Adjust projection', the map tiles will be displayed as downloaded, and the network will be transformed. This is reversible.

The map services 'OpenStreetMap...' or 'Bing Maps' use the coordinate system 'Sphere Mercator'.



The illustration of a PDF-file, in that transparent polygons were received, is really slow or the transparence of color is lost on paper or in a PDF-document.

The reason is due to program libraries, GDI+ and the Postscript drivers, that do not work together correctly and that we are not able to change. Workaround:
Generate a SVG file 'optimized for Inkscape' in Visum. Then, convert this file to PDF in Inkscape via File -> Save as -> PDF via Cairo.



The map service 'Bing Maps [aerophoto]' or 'OpenStreetMap (Mapnik)' is set as background map but is not shown.

In PTV Visum: Edit graphic parameters -> Background map -> Map service.
The preview returns only the warning:
'Unable to call background map with the current settings.
Background map could not be called by server of the map service used.
Check the parameters of the used map service and your internet connection. The server of the used map service might be temporarily unavailable.'

Inserting static Internet maps (Insert mode -> Backgrounds -> Network editor -> (left mouse button) -> Internet maps) from Bing Maps or Open Street Map fails with:
- 'Tile 1 could not be created, because one or more partial tiles could not be retrieved from the server of the map service.'
- 'Could not create tile 1. Error code: -1011'

The Request.log file holds:
'The requested security package is not available'

The problem only occurs since PTV Visum 17 under Windows 7. Other releases of PTV Visum and PTV Vissim are not affected.
The solution is still in progress and will be released as #18049 in the Release Notes.



The map service 'Bing Maps [aerophoto]' or 'OpenStreetMap (Mapnik)' is set as background map but is not shown.

In PTV Visum: Edit graphic parameters -> Background map -> Map service.
The preview returns only the warning:
'Unable to call background map with the current settings.
Background map could not be called by server of the map service used.
Check the parameters of the used map service and your internet connection. The server of the used map service might be temporarily unavailable.'

Inserting static Internet maps (Insert mode -> Backgrounds -> Network editor -> (left mouse button) -> Internet maps) from Bing Maps or Open Street Map fails with:
- 'Tile 1 could not be created, because one or more partial tiles could not be retrieved from the server of the map service.'
- 'Could not create tile 1. Error code: -1011'

The display of the background map or inserting (static) Internet maps from BING or OSM is probably prevented by the proxyserver.

Only for PTV Visum:
You can analyse this by creating a file, which will be saved temporarily to the project directory for backgrounds:
File -> Project directories -> Edit project directories -> Type 'Background'
i.e.: C:\Users\%USERNAME%\Documents\InternetMaps\Request.log

To create this file try to load a static background from a map service which was not reached for the background map:
Network editor -> Insert mode -> Network -> Backgrounds -> (Left-click in the Network editor) -> In the dialog ''Create background'' choose the option 'Internet maps', and as 'Map service', choose the map service which was not reached. Click 'Preview' and - as long as the error message is shown - you will find the log file Request.log in the project directory for backgrounds.
This file can explain why the tile server could not be reached.

For PTV Visum and PTV Vissim:
Usually Visum/Vissim users cannot change the proxy server, therefore the following text might be relevant for your network administrator.

PTV Visum and PTV Vissim deliberately keep no (encrypted) authentication data, but use the operating system settings under:
Control panel -> Internet Options -> Connections -> LAN settings

A) Workaround in case of an active proxy server:
- The proxy server should allow the download of PNG and XML files.
- Exclude the following URLs from being blocked by the proxy server:
For OSM:

For Bing:

B) Usually settings for the operating system (commonly used by Internet Explorer) rule the abilities to access the internet through a proxyserver. These can be found following:
Control panel -> Internet Options -> Connections -> LAN settings

Either set the proxyserver address and port, or depending on the network policy set the options
'Automatically detect configuration settings'
'Use automatic configuration script'
with an address to a file called like

C) On computers still using Windows Server 2003 or XP, the internet options are not always recognized correctly (including these applying to the proxy server). The option 'Automatically detect settings' is sometimes ignored. Try to use the option 'Automatic Configuration Script' instead. This does not apply to any MS operating systems released since Vista.



How can lines be activated, which has a greater value in attribute X than attribute Y?

The condition(s):
'Attribute X' <, >, =, ... 'attribute Y' can be entered directly into the filter. If you have a program version before Visum 11.5, you can use a workaround:
The margin of attribute X and Y are saved in an user defined attribute. After that, the filter is executed to this attribute. The value range should be choosen greater or smaller 0.



Some loaded background files cannot be roated. In the dialog 'Background objects, the parameters 'Rotate' and 'Transparancy' cannot be edited. Why not?

- Raster graphics like JPG can be rotated, but once exceeding sizes of 5000 x 5000 pixels, they are subject to restrictions, due to the used library. Workaround: Divide the image file, reduce the resolution or rotate them in image editing software.
- Visum can visualize DXF/DWG files, but the used library cannot rotate them. Workaround: Rotate these models in a CAD software.



Why are not all network objects (i.e. stop points on a link) displayed?

Check the following settings in the graphic parameters of the particular networks objects:
- Button 'Avoid overlapping when drawing':
By activating, only one of the network objects is displayed when serveral objects overlap.
- Layer order:
This causes an overlapping of network objects by others.
- Button 'Draw until scale':
By activating, network objects are drawn dependent on the actual scale.



How to display graphically vehicle journeys as link bar?
How to show volumes or other attributes of one or several vehicle journeys as link bar?

- Use the line filter to filter one or several vehicle journeys.
- Choose indirect attributes for the link bar (marked by one or two arrows denoting the relation of 1:1 or 1:n).
As it is an attribute of items (changing on the course of a vehicle journey), select a line 'item' attribute.

It works with the following bars for example for the volume:
1) Standard bar with attribute SumActive:Line route items\SumActive:Using time profile items\SumActive:Vehicle journey items\Volume (AP)

2) Using a line bar you already start with line route items. Attribute : SumActive:Using time profile items\SumActive:Vehicle journey items\Volume (AP)

'Using' means that the attribute is known for the PuT-route items (stop point to stop point), but the same value is available on the used links in between too.

You will find similar examples in the manual under 'Use cases for version comparison'.



Opening the 3-D network view leads to an error message:
'The 3-D network view cannot be opened.'
'An update of the graphic driver might solve the problem.'

Sometimes a different error message is shown:
'Creating compressed texture failed.'

The 3-D network view depends on a current graphics driver, supporting OpenGL.
Not supported issues are expected with:
- Operating systems from Windows 7 downward.
- Older laptops (try to avoid any energy saving graphic card variants and options, sometimes multiple graphic cards are available)
- Remote Desktop (RDP) from Windows 8 downward, try VNC instead.
Recommendation: Even if Windows indicates that the driver is up to date, look for the graphics card name in the web (e.g. on the manufacturer website), compare the driver version numbers and install the current version manually.

Laptops often use multiple graphic cards, but for energy saving reasons not always the most suitable graphic card is assigned to be used.
In case of e.g. NVIDIA graphic cards you can set this up manually:
1) In the Start menu type 'NVIDIA' to open the app 'NVIDIA Control Panel '.
2) Choose 'Manage 3D settings' -> 'Program settings'
3) Via 'Add' choose PTV Visum. This needs to be repeated for every (new) installation.
4) 'Select the preferred graphics processor for this program:' -> 'High-performance NVIDIA processor'



The background map 'OpenStreetMap (CycleMap)' is shown with the watermark message 'API Key Required'.

The map service 'OpenStreetMap (CycleMap)' is offered by Gravitystorm Limited and needs since July 2017 a user specific API key. For more information please refer to:
and to obtain an API key refer to:

Use the API key in an URL template for a new additional map serice as follows:
Edit -> User preferences -> GUI -> Background map -> Click here to insert a new map service:
Name: (userdefined, for example: Cyclemap)
Url template: tiles:// (ABCD is a dummy, replace this by your key)
Subdomains: a,b,c
Projection: Sphere_Mercator / GCS_Sphere



When using a display supporting some UHD or 4K/4K2K standard, icons might be very small, where some texts might be larger and others smaller.

PTV Visum 18 will support the 4K2K standards.
Workaround (as example for PTV Visum 17):
- Select the file
C:\Program Files\PTV Vision\PTV Visum 17\Exe\Visum170.exe
- Right-click to open the context menu.
- Choose: Properties -> Compatibility
- Set the option 'Override high DPI scaling behavior.'
- Try the options for 'Scaling performed by:'



How can I integrate a Web Map Service (WMS) or a web map tile service (WMTS)?

1) Map services can be added here:
Edit -> User preferences -> GUI -> Background map:
Examples for WMS services:

Example for a WMTS service:
- tile://
- tile://
with the subdomain a

2) Choose this service to be displayed:
Graphic -> Edit graphic parameters -> Background map -> Map service.

Tip: If the connection or the server is too slow, you can still use the map service to insert static internet maps.
Even if the URL to a map service does not work, you can try to load a static background from that service. As long as the dialog ''Add background'' is still open, you can find a log file in the folder for map tiles, i.e.:
Refer to:

Proxy server or map services which need a separated authentification are not supported.


  Graphical operations


How can I perform a flowbundle analysis with blocking back turned on to see the current flows?

See the example together with a readme file:



How can I save the results of a flow bundle analysis in a matrix?
The procedure 'Save demand matrix from route volumes' in the Procedure Sequence -> Matrices
was used to store the results from a flow bundle analysis in a matrix. Since PTV Visum 15 this procedure is not available anymore.

By default demand matrices from flow bundle calculations are saved as formula matrices in the Visum model.
Therefore, the procedure 'Save demand matrices from route volumes' is redundant and has been removed.
(Visum-12393 in c:\Program Files\PTV Vision\PTV Visum 15\Doc\Eng\Overview_Visum15.pdf)
The automatic generation is set with the option:
Calculate -> General procedure settings -> Volumes -> Generate formula matrices for flow bundle matrices with code



Is it possible to export isochrone boundaries as shapefile?

Yes, this is possible in two steps:
1) Out of existing isochrones, create new POI area objects with the AddIn '2D-Isochrone -> POI':
Scripts -> VisumAddIn -> GIS -> '2D-Isochrone -> POI'.
2) Export these POI objects as shapefile:
File -> Export -> Shapefile



Is it possible to save the content of the network editor directly out of Visum? Where is the function ''Screenshot'' in the menu ''Extras'' to be found?

For an output regardless of the format, the following approach is appropriated:
- You can save the content of the window of a graphical editor (without title bar) as .jpg with File -> Export -> JPG Export (Screenshot) (since Visum 12.5) or with Extras -> Screenshot (until Visum 12 inclusively). The screenshot is identical with the cutout of the network editor.
- New since Visum 12.5:
Besides, for every editor with graphical content there is the buttom ''JPG Export (Screenshot)'' (symbolised as a camera) in the tool bar. It can be found in the network editor, in the timetabe editor (graphical timetable and block view), in the transfers display of regular services and in the signal time-space diagram.
- You can save the content of the network window in the voctor-based SVG-format via File -> Save as/Export -> SVG Export.


  Import and Export


After clicking 'Open' in the dialog 'Open: Background' an error message is returned:
'Cannot load background file ..'

The DWG file is written in a newer format as supported by the used PTV Visum release.
If you want to find out, open the binary DWG file in a text editor. The first characters might be like 'AC1027', which meets 'AutoCAD 2013'.

Recommendation: Update to the current release:



When importing multiple shapefiles with links, the nodes to connect links from both files are doubled, and thus the links are not connected.
In result, any assignment fails with an error message:
'No path found from zone .. to zone ..'

- Export the links as shapefile again, but do not export the node numbers: File -> Export -> Shapefile -> (enter the filename) -> OK -> Columns -> (remove the attributes 'From node number' and 'To node number') -> OK -> OK
- Delete all nodes (and thus also all links).
- Import this shapefile again: Now the nodes are created again, only one per link end, also at the former borders of the original shapefiles.



When exporting or copying to Excel (by file or clipboard, of lists or matrices) number formats or number values are sometimes changed. Why?

This might be related to the setting for the decimal symbol as point or comma, which needs to be equal for both Visum and Excel:
- Excel can use the corresponding Windows setting: Control panel -> Regional and Language -> Format -> Additional settings/Customize -> 'Decimal symbol' and 'Digit grouping symbol'.
- Excel 2010 can override this option: Excel Options -> Advanced -> Use system separators -> 'Decimal separator' and 'Thousands separator'.

In Visum this is a program setting:
- Visum10/11/12: Extras -> Options -> Formats -> Decimal separator.
- Visum13/14: Edit -> User Preferences -> Formats -> Decimal separator.



The import from or export to 'MS-Access 2007 or newer' failed with the error messages:
'Failed to open database. Could not find Access 2007 or later OLE DB provider.'
'Calling UTADOXDB_CreateOrOpenCatalog - _CatalogPtr->Create(Provider=Microsoft.ACE.OLEDB.12.0;Data source=..) failed!'
'Error during the connection with the database!
Database error:
Code = 80010105
Message = Ausnahmefehler des Servers.
Source = (null)
Description = (null)
Database error: 80004005Nicht erkennbares Datenbankformat ..'

The Microsoft.ACE.OLEDB.12.0-Databaseprovider is defective or not available, although its respective key is still present in the Registry.

Workaround: Install the '2007 Office System Driver: Data Connectivity Components':



Can Visum import data in the format of 'General Transit Feed Specification'/GTFS (former 'Google Transit Feed')?

Yes, such data can be imported by using an Add-In:
- Visum15/16/17: Scripts -> VisumAddin -> Import -> Import General Transit Feed.
- Visum12.5/13/14: Scripts -> VisumAddin -> Import -> Import Google Transit Feed.
- Visum11/11.5/12: Scripts -> VisumAddin -> PuT -> Import Google Transit Feed.



Which files can be imported from an EMME model into PTV Visum?
Are any procedures in the EMME model imported to PTV Visum too?

Use the interface in: File -> Import -> Emme

Following EMME files can be imported:
- EMME/2 data file.
- EMME/2 modes.
- EMME/2 Network.
- EMME/2 Turns.
- EMME/2 Vehicles.
- EMME/2 Transit Lines.
- EMME/2 trip tables.

Procedure parameters are not imported, only network data.
The EMME/3-format is not supported. Workaround: Save the EMME/3 model as EMME/2.



Importing a shapefile fails with the error message 'This shapefile type is not supported'.

PTV Visum does not support following data types for polylines:
- '(15)' stands for 'POLYGONZ', which are polygons with Z-coordinates. These are not supported because polygons in Visum do not have any Z-coordinate. Workaround: When saving the shapefile in ArcGIS (or another software) select another data type - POLYGON or POLYLINE.
Since PTV Visum 11.50-02 PolygonM und PolygonZ are supported, but the Z-coordinates are omitted.
- '(8)' stands for MultiPoint and is still not supported. Workaround: Use Point instead.



How to import files from CUBE to Visum?

Since Visum 12.5 there is the add-In 'Import Cube network' by Scripts -> VisumAddIn -> Import.

The import of CUBE consideres the following network objects - nodes, areas, lines, connections and PuT lines. Additionally, turn attributes like penalties and prohibited turns can be read in. Required files:
1) ASRI shp files for nodes (including shx, dbf files).
2) ESRI shp files for lines (including shx, dbf files).

Further files (optional):
1) ASCII text file for turn time penalties and prohibited turns.
2) Cube PuT line file (*.lin) in ASCII format (+ve node numbers mark stop points, where boarding and alighting is permitted).



The ANM export fails with the error message:
'The link polygon of link .. is too short. The saved file would not be readable. ANM export is canceled.'

The links seem to be too short, because the used geographic coordinate system (WGS84 lat/lon thus in degrees) is not suitable for small models.

Transform the network into a suitable metric coordinate system:
Network -> Network settings -> Co-ordinate system -> -> Projected Coordinate Systems -> Utm -> Wgs 1984 -> WGS 1984 UTM Zone XX.prj .

Use the Wikipedia page on UTM
to determine the correct zone number. In Visum N or S denote the northern and southern hemisphere.



The import interface 'PuT supply from Visum' fails with an error message: 'The calendars in the source and target network are not compatible.'

The valid days of source and target version file do not match, e.g. the target version file uses no calendar, the source version file some annual or weekly calendar.
Workaround: Equal this setting, e.g. choose in the source the option 'No calendar':
Network -> Network settings -> Basis -> Calendar



Is it possible to import AutoCad DWG models as edges and nodes?

No, not directly.
It is very well possible to use AutoCad DWG models to build a Visum model from. There may be two different cases:
1) The DWG file contains a CAD model showing streets, crossings, pavements, cycle ways, lanes and lamp posts in all detail.
2) The DWG file contains a CAD model holding a nodes-edges-model.

Ad 1) These models are not suitable as Visum model, though as background very suitable. Having the detailed street as image in the background, a nodes-edges model is built within Visum more easily. To use such DWG files as background, you can load them in Visum as background file of type DWG.

Ad 2) These models might be suitable in many cases as foundation for a Visum model. However, Visum cannot read DWG nor DXF directly as nodes and edges. Therefore you need a detour. A possible detour leads over the DXF format, which will be transformed into the SHP format (Esri-Shape). Visum can read SHP files as edges and nodes.

You might find suitable tools in the web by giving in DXF2SHP or use a GIS program like MapInfo.

Visum 9 offered the old program DxfKonv.exe (typically in c:\Programme\PTV_Vision\VISUM940\DXF\DxfKonv.exe) but this only transforms DXF files into backgroundfiles (according to the old format HGT).



The connection to a Personal Geodatabase fails:
'A 64 Bit version of ESRI ArcGIS is not yet available. Cannot connect to a geo database'.

- When using PTV Visum 16 or older: Using a 64 bit operation system, you have to install Visum 32 bit in addition, to connect PTV Visum with a Personal Geodatabase.
- Since PTV Visum 17 only Visum 64 bit is available, but is able to connect to the 32 bit Personal Geodatabase interface.

- Export the data to a Shapefile and either import this into PTV Visum (File -> Import -> Shapefile), or visualize this als Background:
Network -> Backgrounds -> Network editor -> Insert mode -> (click into the Network editor) -> Create background -> Graphics file -> OK -> Open: Background -> (select Shapefile) -> Open

Please contact PTV Support for suggestions if you need to visualize data held in ESRI products:



How to import geographical objects (nodes, polylines or areas) from MapInfo (*.TAB) to Visum?

Export the MapInfo-file as Shape-file (Tools -> Universal Translator - from TAB to SHP) and import these to Visum (File -> Import -> Shapefile).



How can I generate stops, stop areas and stop points from a shape file?

1) Import the shape file as nodes.
2) Integrate these nodes into the network: Nodes -> (Rightclick to enter the context menu) -> Aggregation of isolated nodes.
3) To generate a stop area and a stop point for each stop, choose between the following options:
'Integrating nodes ...':
- 'Always as node with stop point'.
- 'Always just as stop point'.



How can I import a complete PuT timetable, which I imported from HAFAS or GTFS date including the line and stops hierarchy, from one Visum version file into another?

File -> Import -> PuT supply from Visum
Manual: 27.5 Importing PuT supply
Example: c:\Users\Public\Documents\PTV Vision\PTV Visum 17\Examples\Importer PuT\



How to import data from TransCAD to Visum?

Visum12.5 introduced the AddIn 'Import TransCAD network', found in:
Scripts -> VisumAddIn -> Import

The interface handles following network objects: nodes, zones, links, turns, connectors and PuT lines.
Please note: importing PuT lines needs manual editing afterwards, because of differences in the data models between TransCAD and Visum.

The interface needs files in formats, which can be exported from TransCAD:
- ESRI shapefiles for the network's topology and geometry.
- ASCII/TXT on turns.

Necessary files:
1) ESRI shp for nodes (including the shx and dbf file).
2) ESRI shp file on links (including the shx and dbf file).

Optional files:
1) ASCII text file holding turn times and closed turns.
2) ESRI shp file holding stops and the order they are served (including the shx and dbf file) [needed to import PuT data].
3) ESRI shp file on routings (including the shx and dbf file) [needed to import PuT data].


  PrT assignment


A skim matrix calculation produces new matrices, but the already existing matrices in the model are not updated.

Since PTV Visum 14 matrices can either be defined using their unique matrix number or their properties. Properties are combinations of attribute values which identify one or several matrices. The second option is since then available in various dialogs of the software.
If matrix numbers or properties of existing or for new matrices changed, procedures will create new matrices:
- In the list Matrices, check the attributes Code and DSegCode to meet the correct values.
- Calculate -> General procedure settings -> PrT settings -> Skims -> 'Code / file'
- Calculate -> General procedure settings -> PuT settings -> Skims -> 'Code / file'



Why can PrT assignment results be different, with and without main nodes?

If a model contains main nodes, the links, nodes and turns within the main nodes are no longer considered. Therefore the model is different and the paths differ too: the path is searched from cordon link to cordon link of a main node, using a main turn. A part of the path (links and turns within the main node) is omitted.



Why are the assignment results between two Visum versions not identical?

The calculation algorithms the procedures are based on are improved in new Visum versions. There are additional options integrated and new research results implementated. For this reason, the assignment results may differ.



Why are connectors by shares not met after an assignment (PrT)?

The Connector's shares can be disabled with the setting:
Calculate -> General procedure settings -> PrT settings -> Connector weights apply to -> Total trips (MPA off).
When using 'Each single OD pair' instead, the connector's shares are considered.

You can distribute the demand among a zone's PrT connectors A) absolutely (freely) or B) proportionally (by shares):
A) If a zone has multiple connectors and the zone is set to 'Absolute', this will use the connectors according to shortest paths. It can be that a connector does not get any volume at all.
B) To meet connector shares, use the zone setting 'By shares'. In this case choose between 'Total trips (MPA off)' or 'Each single OD pair':
1) 'Total trips (MPA off)' is a volume-dependent consideration, the connectors' capacities are taken according to the shares and the impedance of connectors is calculated by a VDF. This way, you usually won't reach exact shares, which does however depend on how 'hard' the VDF is set.
2) 'Each single OD pair' is in fact a multi-point assignment (MPA), the demand of zones with proportional demand distribution is divided appropriate to these shares (thus the demand matrix is expanded and disaggregated) before the assignment. After the assignment, the matrix is aggregated again. This way, the connectors will meet exactly their shares. But caution, this takes extra calculation time and memory capacity.




With an active blocking back calculation less traffic arrives than without blocking back calculation.

The reason lies within the somewhat contradictory combination of a static assignment and the dynamic procedure blocking back (Dynamic assignments do not take blocking back into account, DUE uses an own procedure). The traffic load on links with a capacity bottleneck and ensuing links is smaller, because only the traffic that got through these links during the blocking back 1st phase is counted.
Capacity and a static assignment should share the same time scope, typically 'a day', or 'an hour'. Therefore traffic not able to get along capacity reduced links will reach its destination, but beyond this time scope.

The links before the capacity bottleneck get a mixed traffic volume, counting the traffic that got through + the traffic stocked on these links. The stocking capacity is defined in a link attribute (Edit link -> Congestion -> Stocking Capacity). Traffic exceeding this stocking capacity is blocked back onto the preceding link or links.

The PrT paths list shows, that all traffic was loaded onto the paths, thus left the origin but not necessarily reached its destination:
Lists -> Paths -> PrT Paths



How can I obtain the total vehicle volume per link, summed for PrT and PuT, taking into account that PuT vehicles influence the PrT route choice?

1) Use the procedure 'PuT operating indicators' to acquire the number of PuT vehicle journeys. (This needs a timetable.)
2) Taking basic volume into account:
Calculate -> General procedure settings -> PrT settings -> Assignment -> Basic volume -> Fix -> Detailed calculation -> Links 1 * 'Number of service trips (AP)'
3) Run the PrT assignment again, which will take the 'basic volume' caused by PuT into account, to influence the PrT's route choice.
4) Create a user-defined attribute (Typ Formula) to sum up the link attributes 'Volume PrT [veh] (AP)' + 'Number of service trips (AP)'.



How to apply toll with the TRIBUT-Equilibrium assignment or the TRIBUT-Equilibrium_Lohse?

Visum offers three toll procedures:
1) Link toll/'TRIBUT':
The toll is defined in combination with the TRIBUT-Equilibrium assignment for every single link with the link attribute 'toll-PrTSys(...)' (barely suitable for TRIBUT-Equilibrium_Lohse). Example: German truck toll on national highways.
2) Area toll which is applied for a special area object. Example: London.
3) Matrix toll, to model degressive road pricing schemes. Example: french highways.

The second and the third one are administrated as toll system and only work in combination with TRIBUT-Equilibrium_Lohse. The consideration of toll systems in the TRIBUT-Equilibrium assignment were subordinated, because the implementation investment and the expected calculation time are not expected to result in anything comparable to TRIBUT-Equilibrium_Lohse. A vignette toll, which in contrary to area toll allows re-entry on particular link types or does not constrain a particular zone with extra costs, is currently not possible in Visum.

Managing Toll systems:
Lists -> Private transport -> Toll -> Toll matrices
you can edit a toll matrix.

c:\Users\Public\Documents\PTV Vision\PTV Visum 18\Examples\PrT Assignment Tribut\;11.50



PrT or PuT demand has not been assigned completely. How can I analyse this to find out where and why this happens?

A typical error message can be:
'DUE could not assign .. OD pairs completely or partially, e.g. due to closures or for too low capacities.'

You can analyse this by using a 'Remaining matrix', indicating the amount of not assigned demand per relation:

Since PTV Visum15: Use a matrix of Data source type 'Formula matrix' to calculate the Remainder matrix. In the dialog 'Edit formula...' the following functions are combined to an expression referencing the demand segment code to calculate the Remainder matrix:

Until PTV Visum 14: Matrices -> (select a matrix with only partially assigned demand) -> (open the context menu with the right mouse button) -> Save to file -> Dialog 'Save: Matrix' -> Dialog 'Save matrix ..:
Format: 'Format V' or 'Binary'
Matrix: Assignment matrix
Option: activate the option 'Remaining matrix' (only available for assigned matrices)

This matrix can be opened as an external matrix. Filter it on values > 0.

Check the following reasons when demand has not been assigned completely:
A) PuT assignments: missing connections.
B) PrT (only in case of Dynamic assignments):
1) Queues.
2) In case of DUE network coding errors like:
- missing connectors.
- wrong attribute values on links and connectors.
- defective topology (not connected nodes covering the same location).
- impedance too high (lacking capacity, volume too high).



How can flow bundle volumes exceed link volumes?

If Blocking back is active, assignment results on links (connectors, (main-) turns and (main-) nodes) are changed, in order to show how much traffic flows behind a bottle neck.
The saved paths are not changed, but this is what flow bundles are using.

If you want to compare flow bundle volumes with link volumes, there are three methods:
A) If you take the attribute 'Volume PrT [veh] (AP)', this will show the traffic volume that passed the bottle neck until the end of the assignment interval only. If you take the attribute 'Volume demand PrT [veh] (AP)' instead, this will show the complete traffic volume.

B) Calculate an approximation of actual flow bundle volumes:
1) Define an UDA ‘ratio’ for links (turns, main turns) with a formula using attributes of volumes e.g. [Volume PrT [PCU] (AP)] / [Volume demand PrT with base [PCU]].
2) Define an UDA ‘actualVolFlowBundle’ for links (turns, main turns) with the formula [Volume flow bundle (PRT)] * [RATIO].
3) Modify the graphic parameters so that the UDA ‘actualVolFlowBundle’ is shown.

- Remark: If a flow was not affected by the bottleneck, it still adds to the attribute [Volume PrT [PCU] (AP)], resulting in overestimating the actual flow.

C) Turn off the blocking back model. Proceed as follows:
1) Calculate -> General procedure settings -> PrT settings -> Blocking back model -> Blocking back calculation active - deactivate.
2) Graphics -> Flow bundle -> Execute.



An user defined VDF is not found, in case it was referenced an error message is shown:
'Could not load DLL...'

Please check the following properties:
1) The DLL's architecture has to match to the used software, i.e. a 64 bit Visum version only works with a 64 bit dll and won't recognize a 32 bit dll.
2) The dll (for Visum 18) imperatively needs to be located under %APPDATA%\PTV Vision\PTV Visum 18\UserVDF-DLLs\.
3) The file name has to start with 'VISUMVDF...'.
4) The installed VCredist.exe needs to match the Visual Studio version, which was used to build the DLL.
VCRedist is installed together with the 'Visual C++ Redistributable für Visual Studio' package, available on the Microsoft website
- Visum 15/16 use the VCRedist version of Visual Studio 2013.
- Visum 17/18 use the VCRedist version of Visual Studio 2017.
5) Please use the solution in the folder c:\Program Files\PTV Vision\PTV Visum 18\Data\UserDefVDF\
Do not create any new project, use the example CPP file. Adapt the formulas needed in this file.



How can I close links for through traffic but keep them open for residential traffic?

- Differentiate per TSys set and Demand segment: This method is suitable to model e.g. HGV bans. The banned links are closed for a TSys HGV, but open for a TSys HGV_local. This method needs a split up of the demand matrix.
- Differentiate per TSys impedance input attribute on links or turns: Raise some user-defined impedance attribute values only for cordon links and turns, to add to the impedance of through traffic, influencing the route choice only for the through traffic. The residential traffic impedance is raised too, but without route choice changes. (Calculate -> General procedure settings -> PrT settings -> Impedance -> (Select a TSys) -> Use the option 'In detail' -> (Create functions for links or turns holding some user-defined impedance attribute))
(Note: 'Impedance-PrTSys (P,AP)' is an output attribute)
- Differentiate per Link type: Use the option 'Closed' of the Volume-delay function, dedicated per Link type. (Calculate -> General procedure settings -> PrT settings -> Volume-delay functions -> Link types -> (Select a Link type) -> Volume-delay functions -> Edit)
- Differentiate per Turn type: Use the option 'Closed' of the Volume-delay function, dedicated per Turn type. (Calculate -> General procedure settings -> PrT settings -> Node impedances -> Turns VDF -> (Select a Turn type) -> Volume-delay functions -> Edit)

If this option has been checked, the particular network object will only be included in path search if no alternative path can be found (e.g. for residential traffic). In this case, Visum assigns a high virtual time penalty, which, for example, has to be considered in the travel time skim matrix, when evaluating path times.

Hard closure
If this option has been checked, the particular network object will be excluded from path search.

The option 'Hard closure' is only visible, if option Closed has been checked.
(Ref.: Manual 'Applying userdefined volumedelay functions')


  Matrix editor


How to save VISUM matrices in $O or $V format with a defined number of decimal places

The number of decimal places is a direct property of the net element matrix respectively a matrix attribute.
For example you may have a look at the quick view after chosen a matrix under tab Matrices. There you can edit the number of decimal places (also possible under Lists/Matrices). This number of decimal places only effects output in ASCII/text format, binary matrix files always hold the entire accuracy of the values.



How can I quickly and easily import matrices from Excel/TXT/CSV formats?

1) By using copy & paste of cell ranges.
2) By reproducing matrix formats by using i.e. a short programm code, i.e. the $O-format:
3) By using the AddIn 'Load Matrix From Excel' (since Visum 11.52-06).


  Scenario management


Opening a project in the Scenario management fails with an error message:
'Connection to database failed. If the SQL server CE 3.5 is not installed properly, you can proceed as follows:'

The Microsoft hotfix, that solved this issue in the past is not available anymore.

- Make sure Windows 10 is up-to-date and all updates are installed.
- Replace SQL Server CE by SQL Server Express, which means the database is no longer a file on a network drive but served by a database server on the network instead.
- Change to PTV Visum 2020 (but only after the beta phase), which used SQLite instead.
- Store the project on a local drive.


  PuT assignment


Why are the attributes for operating indicators (e.g. 'Number of service trips ..') not calculated?

These attributes have to be calculated separately, using the procedure 'PuT operating indicators':
Calculate -> Procedure sequence -> Paste -> Procedure -> PuT analyses.
In the tab 'Transport supply', activate the option 'Calculate also for territories'.

The results of the procedure 'PuT operating indicators' is based upon vehicle journeys and territories, without them the procedure will not return any result for attributes like 'Number of service trips'.
- Use the Addin 'Create Regular Timetable' to create a time table from available headways.
- Use the function 'Convert active zones' to create territories from zones: Zones -> (Right-click to open the context menu -> Convert active zones).



The result of a headway-based or timetable-based assignment does not show any volumes (on vehicle journeys).

The setting for
Calculate - > General procedure settings -> PuT settings -> Assignment -> Save volumes
is set to 'Only for timeprofiles'. Choose 'Additionally for vehicle journeys' instead.



How can I take the capacity of PuT vehicles into account for assignments?

The PuT assignment procedures Headway-based and Timetable-based can take capacities into account, but not by default. It uses an impedance component in an iterative way, explained in the examples below:
c:\Users\Public\Documents\PTV Vision\PTV Visum 17\Examples\PuT Capacity Restrained\
The procedures attempt to approach the capacity when a sufficient factor for the corresponding impedance component is set, but this may well be exceeded.



Why is the number of PuT paths different from the attribute value 'Path\PuT relation\Service frequency'?

- The List 'PuT paths' describes per OD the connections that receive volume during an assignment.
- The attribute 'Service Frequency' describes per OD all arrivals following the timetable, taken into account by the assignment:
(Manual Skims of attribute data: 'For the timetable-based assignment, the service frequency is defined as the number of different arrival times ...')



After a timetable-based or headway-based assignment, all departure times are at midnight respectively 00:00:00.

The term connection indicates a time-based information as to say the path has a precise departure time. Routes don't have precise departure times (always 00:00) and they combine all connections with the same course.
Timetable-based assignment:
The parameter setting for 'Save assignment results' is set to 'As routes'. This saves memory. To get departure times choose 'As connections':
Calculate -> General procedure settings -> PuT settings -> Assignment -> Save assignment results -> Save paths 'as connections'.
Headway-based assignment:
In case of a headway-based assignment there are no departure times at all. A headway-based assignment only returns routes as assignment results.



How can I obtain a 'stop point to stop point matrix' (or stop to stop matrix)?

Before running a PuT assignment, consider to set the following options:
Calculate -> General procedure settings -> PuT settings -> Assignment
- Save the volume matrix between stop points on path level
- Save the volume matrix between stop points on path leg level

The result is saved to:
Lists -> PuT analyses
- Volume matrix between two stop points - on path level
- Volume matrix between stop points - on path leg level



Why is the Origin Wait Time (OWT) assumed to be zero in the timetable-based assignment?

In a timetable-based assignment, the passenger is assumed to know the departure times, and thus he has the opportunity to go to the stop exactly the right time, resulting in a zero wait time.
You can however setup an adapted origin wait time in the impedance settings, to be added to the perceived journey time (PJT). This adapted origin wait time is constant for all connections available to an OD pair, depends on the service frequency, can be limited to a maximum and is used for the skim matrix. (See manual 'Adapted skims of time for the timetable-based assignment').



Why are connectors by shares not met after an assignment (PuT)?

For PuT this setting is held within the assignment procedure:
Timetable-based or Headway-based -> Basis -> Use connector shares. Connector shares will always be calculated by using MPA.




A Headway- or Timetable-based assignment or a calculation of PuT skim matrices leads to a program crash ('Runtime Error') or takes more runtime than expected.

Possibly too many links are open for a transport system of type 'PuTWalk'. The runtime error is caused by lack of memory. The PuT assignment procedures are not intended to assign 'pedestrians'. 'PuTWalk' is intended for connectors and transfer paths which are not modelled inside a stop. The PuT assignment procedure assembles every single link as a path leg into the search graph. Too many foot links inflate the search graph, which causes a runtime error by lack of memory. Of course, that does not only cost memory capacity but also calculation time. For that reason, better use foot paths only where necessary.
Workaround: Use (long) connectors instead. It might be a set of connectors with a dedicated type number, factorized for their Walk times, to model that people walk though some subordinated network and not an air-line distance.



A PuT assignment failed with an error message:
'No demand for any O-D pair. No connections calculated'

This message is returned, when the demand segment to be assigned does not have any matrix:
OD demand -> OD demand data -> Demand segments -> Column 'matrix'